Is about the battle for the minds and soul of a nation. An unapologetic critique of United States history may lead us to the conclusion that a peaceful well organized revolution of The West is long overdue. This thesis is followed by the vision of a truly democratic form of government that will rise from the ashes, the moral decay of the United States of America, democracy is coming to the USA*, welcome to the New West.
Table of Contents
The New West 123
As far as The West fitting into a Dewey Decimal Classification of books as a Historical, Political, Dialectic, Creative Non-Fiction work about Democracy, proposing a Peaceful Revolution, The West could fit under 909 universal history, 329 political essays and speeches, or a most likely fit is under the Sociology heading in 324 as about Democracy rather than Republican Institutions under the same number. I do hope that some of these revolutionary thoughts within this work would be recognized and acted upon in short order or at least in my natural life time. Instead, because so many people of this country seem so well indoctrinated to believe in American corporate capitalist Exceptionalism, to avoid or at least minimize harassment; I think I will designate this book a work of fiction. It may be shelved under 813 American fiction in English, according to: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Dewey_Decimal_classes https://www.gutenberg.org/files/12513/12513-h/12513-h.htm#DIVISIONS
Although a perfect record, a perfect recollection and communication of historic events, trapped in their own time and space is impossible for us; a closer more accurate interpretation of those actual historical events is possible when we take into consideration who actually wrote the historical record of such events that interest us. We need to realize it is the winners of wars who write the history of wars and in many cases the favoritism and bias is obvious while being subtle in others yet detrimental to our understanding of the most evil disastrous activity humans engage in. Justification of war will inevitably lead to more war. We must search out what the losers had to say and compare any documents written by the opposing party and come to what conclusions we may. Somewhere between the information in this book and the information the powers that be would like you to believe; you will to develop your own independent thoughts about the human history of the Western Continent discussed in this book. Once we accept the truth that the winners of wars write their version of history we are most familiar and with that realization we can hold on or let go of cognitive dissonance or develop an independent critical personal opinion that is most likely closer to the truth than if we did not study alternative narratives of the same events. Some thinkers and writers writers have suggested that “everything you were taught to believe to be true is a lie”, not exactly, but many things we believe to be true are not, https://blog.cheapism.com/lies-teachers-told-17314/. I searched this little gem a friend and myself word smithed a while back, “It is easier to get somebody to believe a lie than it is to get them to believe they were deceived.”; I’m sure others have had similar thought but it has a ring of truth as well as some originality. I think that when it comes to politics both of these sayings hold some truth. With discussion, thought and developing a well founded opinion on human events a dialectic approach is bound to provide a better understanding of the past to in turn make better plans for our future. In my study of history from an alternate viewpoint of the slanted viewpoint provided us by the powers that be, I developed my own set of beliefs. It is not my intention to Although I came to a point, a level of completeness of ‘The West’ when has been published; The West is an ongoing work that will never truly be finished, always changing and evolving with a land and a people living within the natural realm of a living planet.
Computer, the Internet and cell phone technology now provide us with a wealth of information in multiple forms of media that can help us develop a deeper more complex understanding of ourselves and the world around us. I had hopper that a revolution of love and understanding would have rapidly grown from this wealth of information. Yes, there is a benefit to have so much information readily available to us which was unavailable or hard to search out in the past at our fingertips, but this benefit does not come without a cost. The vast amount of information can be overwhelming, information overload can result in a state of mind where we are less able to determine truth and establish well founded beliefs than times past when less information was available. The state of information overload seems to be a phenomenon a sort intellectual weak point, a vulnerability that propagandists have ceased upon to advance the agenda of those whose only moral premise is maximizing their profits and wealth. I could not have imagined 10 short years ago that ‘alternate facts’ and what I would consider outright bold face lies would be successfully presented as truth and warped the belief systems of so many people. Although The Crowd by Gustave La Bon http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/445/pg445-images.html and Propaganda by Edward Bernays https://www.voltairenet.org/IMG/pdf/Bernays_Propaganda_in_english_.pdf were written in 1895 and 1928 respectively, these books help explain how propagandists can manipulate people’s minds to believe just about anything and get them to vote against their own best interests. Although The West, in my opinion is about supplying information with the goal of being a source of information to advocate for, demonstrating the cause for and being a road map a game plan for a revolution, I am trying my best to stay away from such propaganda techniques because I believe in people. I believe even if this major change this shift over to the computer information age, this hijacking of minds as a result of information overload will pass, why?
Because recognizing and understanding common propaganda techniques lowers the effectiveness of propaganda. Wikipedia provided us with a great in depth article by the very same title of this short discussion, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda_techniques . Neither this chapter or this book are centered on studying the art of propaganda yet any politically societal orientated manifesto would not be complete without a discussion about the influence propaganda has on our decision making, our votes and our society as a whole. Although I don’t like to dwell on Trump because he has so successfully monopolized the media and brain waves that even negative attention seems to feed his infinite ego, but. Trump has successfully used his perceived wealth to appear to be an authority figure. He has used repetition as successfully as Joseph Goebbels did for Hitler repeating falsehoods until they become truths in the minds of those susceptible to this well know technique. Trump never ever admits he was wrong never made a mistake in his entire life, beyond all reason this works for him. Trump attacks anybody and everybody who dares to speak our against him. Trump takes credit for anything and everything positive that he can possibly associate himself with. Trump also has very successfully appealed to fear and awakened people’s deep seated racism and xenophobia, channeled raw emotion to his favor.
After reading about propaganda and logical fallacies extensively I was left with the thought that everything everybody says is propaganda and a fallacy on some level. How can I help the reader be assured that I have an agenda yet it is based on the most accurate information I can find? While I have to admit that I seek to influence and organize people I do not intend to play on any weaknesses they may or may not have. I am open to criticism and intend on publishing this work to my website where it can be openly debated. I intend to use dialectic debate to improve upon the message and implementation of a truly democratic form of self government. In doing so I have to take a stand and define why I believe terms like ‘tyranny of the masses’, ‘democracy is mob rule’ are in fact propaganda, do I then deny the persuasive nature of an effort to get people to understand, agree with and help design this truly democratic form of self rule government I speak of naming it The New West?
Although there are problems with using computer technology to vote; without computers, Internet and social media applications; direct participatory democracy(DPD) on the scale of a nation with over 300 million people would be impossible. The early citizens of the United States could not have possibly organized a DPD party or even vote for representatives reliably in a timely way because for one the mail was delivered by pony express. For two, the true majority of the population was not recognized as citizens and allowed to vote and yes even with paper ballots the vote count was often corrupted. So as messed up as computer Internet technology is, it is also in it’s infancy. Even in this early stage it provides humanity with the first real chance, the first ability we have of implementing direct participatory democracy. We can purchase and sell things on line. We can even bank on line and from our cell phones quite reliably. There is no reason for us not to use this technology to implement a true democracy where the legislative branch of our government is actually derived from the majority will of the people. This is not going to be a simple undertaking and I have doubts it will come to be in my lifetime if ever yet I will not give up advocating for true democracy. Are the majority of humans predisposed to submission to an alpha like a flock of sheep or are we sentient sapient beings with free will?
From the 2016 election of Trump until who knows when, the news media has been telling us without intermission that we are a divided nation. Could it be those in power and wealth want us to be divided, divide and conquer? I admit that my political beliefs are a combination of liberal and libertarian ideals that many people will disagree with. Disagreement when civil can lead to discussion that brings about common ground and fair rational decisions. The West begins with a realistic study of United States history which has undeniably been a combination of evil and dysfunction, a disaster for the working class and the environment. The first historical part is followed by the second part which I like to call my fantasy politics, plans for a peaceful legal revolution which will lead to a new form of government of the country formerly know as the United States, I say this out of love for the people of this diverse land. I think everybody should have a fantasy political point of view, thoughts and desires for a better world. Like it or not, believe it or not, our growing technological industrial advancement as well as our ever growing human population has brought us to a new age, in terms of changing our environment and causing the extinction of many plants and animals disrupting biodiversity, we humans have crossed a point of no return: https://www.sciencealert.com/un-chief-warns-global-warming-s-point-of-no-return-is-hurtling-toward-us https://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/biodiversity/elements_of_biodiversity/extinction_crisis/ There is no debate about this statement of ongoing destruction and pending doom within the scientific community; yet a sub-culture of corporate ideology and infinite profit on a finite planet bombards us with propaganda stating otherwise. A whole business has sprung up around making lies into truths to justify ever expanding profits of the few off of the many and the depletion of nature herself. At first the task before us may seem daunting and depressing, even insurmountable, yet becoming aware can improve the long term and even short term outcomes. Choosing a path that provides us with a future is bound to improve and give meaning to our lives in the present.
Although environmental concerns are paramount to our long term survival, The West is about far more than environmental concerns. The West is about establishing the right to participate in a true humane democratically organized society, it is about horizontal organization where everyone’s thoughts and concerns are of equal validity. In order to make logical well informed decisions about our future as a nation and as human beings on this planet that sustains our lives we must study our past. 528 years after European feudalistic royal lords claimed discovery of a land where a diverse people already lived, the People of The New West will rise above the ashes of the antiquated system of rule by private monetary system monopoly and war profiteering of despotic self proclaimed lords hiding behind the curtain, the facade of a representative republic that represents only the whims of the loosely defined cabal of money masters. By popular demand ‘We the People’ whose name has been used to subdue the working class rather than to empower us, will eventually cast our votes to form the first truly democratic nation where every citizen has a vote that matters. We shall become the collective female and male, racially diverse founders of our government where each individual has an equally meaningful vote on the laws and appropriations we are to live under and within. Welcome to the Western Revolution of 2020 and beyond, the building of the first true Western Constitutional Democratic Civilization. The New West is part of a natural progression toward a truer democracy where every individual has an undeniable vote that matters, so to function as a legitimate branch of our own government, a government that is an instrument of our ‘self determination’ a concept we will revisit and expound upon as the legend goes on. As a reader, if you cannot be convinced by this work to join us in our mission to develop a fair sustainable national community of informed and concerned citizens, in the least I have hopes you will consider what is being said and maybe even enjoy the fruits of our intellectual labors and our purpose of establishing a fair open responsible truly civil order of human society where everyone has an equal say. Yes some people are more talented and some will work harder than others for the common good and they will earn greater rewards for their service rather than top feeding parasites reaping the spoils of their twisted system of government sanctioned thievery.
I think it is time for our country and the entire human population of Earth to review our history and think seriously about how we live as complex high functioning multi-cellular biological creatures to discuss where we are headed as a life form. We call ourselves sentient sapient beings although evidence proves this to be arrogant and prideful. While some of our technological advances provide us with creature comfort a richer easier life, such things as medicine, dependable food supply and housing to protect us from extreme weather, also increases our life span, our birth rates
survival rate increasing our population and eventually depleting the very resources we need for a high quality of life. As such we are at a crossroads like no other where we can prove we are as we call ourselves or we will prove to become more akin to fruit flies in a jar or even as lowly as mold in a Petri dish in an Earth size closed system experiment. All closed system experiments have the result of the dominant species exponential population growth leading to depletion of resources and colony collapse.
The first part, module or volume of this book is a study of history mainly concerning the United States from a perspective other than the prevailing view as determined by the winners of wars, the privileged, the elite of the owner investor class and their continuing monetary system monopoly, a history you have to search to find. Some of this history you already know but it lays buried deep in patriotic propaganda and in some cases cognitive dissonance. The second part is sort of a fantasy politics, a personal design and construction of a constitutional democratic form of government, the form of government I would like to see and be part of. I believe in horizontal rather than vertical pyramidal organization because although there is a diversity, a bell curve of intelligence and physical ability, nobody is worthy of billions of dollars of annual monetary rewards while others are starving and dying directly as a result of the greed of the few. The purpose of this first part if to provide evidence necessary to prove the case and cause for a peaceful revolution to change, to modify and improve our form of government to improve the lives of all people and become responsible caretakers of the natural resources we depend on to have meaningful rich productive lives yet live in a long term sustainable fashion as a national collective within the collective of the totality of humanity itself within the natural limits of Biosphere Earth.
Knowing a little about how people act and react, it would be a bet with very good odds that some critics and readers will try to distract and disregard the historical significance of this book by stating that the author “hates America”. In reaction to a fair unbiased history of banking and money they will call me anti-Semitic. They are the same people that make exceptions for slavery and every other evil by stating that such things were ‘normal’ for that time period. To the contrary The West is written out of love for the vast majority of the people of this country. All our lives are of a far more equal worth to one another than the masters of the current hierarchical system would have it. Each one of our life’s worth is what we have to offer and give, what we contribute in physical and mental toil for the benefit of others, not what we can take from others and nature to hoard vast fortunes worth thousands and even millions of times the wages of common workers as our current ‘successful’ business leaders do in the cesspool of inhumanity.
The goal of this writing has to do with influencing people to consider what I have come to name , Health Well-being and Longevity, which in three words defines what we all really need and want. Health and longevity are self explanatory to a certain extent within their popular accepted definitions. Well Being on the other hand, the way I use the term, encompasses a near infinite set of meanings involving our mental health and satisfying our individual natural desires, our sexual and reproductive desires, as well as feeling we have a meaningful purposeful place in life; where we contribute things to others in exchange for things we receive from individuals as well as the collective of humanity. We live within the larger natural biosphere of the planet, the greater solar system, galaxy and physical universe that our biological life’s depend upon, so well-being would include a healthy curiosity at all these levels as well as entertaining thoughts of a possible existence of a state of being beyond the limitations of time space and matter.
These ideals I am advocating, the idea that we are all of far more equal worth under the law than we are under capitalistic ideology, the idea of horizontal rather that vertical organization has it problems, such organization is rare in the animal kingdom although not unheard of. When we think of the long term survivability of our species and our equal station as individuals within the greater collective, we each need a legitimate way to participate in decision making which affects our lives within a humane society, yet because self promoting sociopaths rather than people who truly desire to serve humanity have an advantage in the capitalist and Judaeo-Christian-Muslim influenced system that has been the basis of western culture for centuries. It is a natural phenomena for a large portion of humans as well as animals, to seek an alpha, to submit to a hierarchical structure although this is subtle without additional societal instruments manipulating this hierarchical structure. Actually humans, human hierarchy has artificially enhanced this tendency to submit and believe things, to accept alternative facts determined to be fact by the governmental structure through the use of propaganda, economic control and finally physical violence often extending to actual murder of skeptics, critical thinkers and dissent. This disenfranchisement and outright murder of free thinkers may have actually caused that trait within humanity to diminish although it is certainly still alive in the diversity of our gene pool. Some human psychological traits are passed on at a genetic level and some structures of our belief systems are taught to us at a young age. Some people are open to modification of their beliefs due to observation and stimuli, others not so much, giving rise to cognitive dissonance. None of this is absolute, there are exceptions and every human has a diversity of genes and their own individual life experiences which intern form their belief system, their world view, which may or may not change over time. Each human is genetically unique and also has unique experiences from their moment of birth. Identical twins are every similar yet if you have ever known two of them as close friends for a length of time you will be able to readily tell them apart physically and their character, their life outlook can vary greatly.
The purpose of this work it to discuss the historical record of European human culture leading up to post Colombian European migration and assimilation of the people who were already in what is known as the United States; of the culture, of the organization and hierarchy, of governmental structure as it has existed through it’s short history from the landing of Columbus in the Bahamas, the West Indies in 1492 never setting foot on the actual north or south dominant Western continents; up to the writing of this book from 2015 through 2020. Then to digest and critique that information and continue to step two, the second part of the book, to propose a system that will grow out of the ashes of the current rendition of the system into a system with greater worth and dignity for all. To make a case for, the need of, a Western revolution to take place in what is now known as the United States and bring forth a new social economic structure to more readily improve the health well-being and longevity of all our lives and future generations while lessening the human impact on this beautiful natural planet. Although such revolutionary changes need to come to fruition on a grand Earth inclusive scale I am documenting the history from an ‘American’ standpoint because this is the country of my birth and I do feel the United States, with it’s antiquated Constitution with significant contradictions within the wording that systematically prevents changes necessary for the collective improvements to our quality of lives as organized sentient sapient beings; is a worthy incubator for needed change on a revolutionary scale.
As serious as this all sounds, I enjoy a certain level of comedy which I find within our human predicament. I either watched to much or not enough of Drunk History a for TV series of shows about interesting people and historical times of the United States as told by inebriated people. I have incorporated the words of Denise the anarcho-syndicalist of Monty Python and the Holy Grail as a part of my true political beliefs. I also have enjoyed the way that George Carlin analyzed and explained certain events and human behaviors intermingled with cuss words and jokes. Laughology seems to be a recognized tool in the educator’s tool box. I don’t expect to be as entertaining as those three examples of educational humorist shows and showman but I do not want the readers to become depressed or bored. I just feel an alternative narration of history, a review of what we know to be true as well as some things some of us may not have considered is necessary to bring us up to date and into current affairs of humanity which are very serious and it is important for us to not repeat mistakes of the past to create a better present and future productive satisfying time and place to live. It is long past time to take a critical look at the history of the United States because we cannot afford to keep repeating the mistakes of the past at this time.
Our technology and our population have grown simultaneously to a point where humanity has entered a new age, like it or not, deny it, become cognitive dissonant to it, regardless what our individual reaction to this happening, a new era has arrived. It is also quite obvious that our ability to reason as well as our ability to act civilly toward one another has not evolved at the same rate as our technological advancements. I think this is somewhat due to the psychological makeup of those who ascend to positions of power and wealth within a system designed by power and wealth. Our economic theories and norms as well as some of our moral premises are now antiquated to the point of becoming harmful. One does not need to be a rocket scientist to theorize that there is a point in human population growth where resources necessary for a decent quality of life will become depleted and polluted to the point where there are less resources to be distributed per person. Income inequality where the monetary worth of a few people is reaching obscene levels that devalue the lives of common people only intensifies the reality of scarcity. I’m not advocating communism here, I seek to establish a premise that capitalism is certainly not based on a fair exchange of goods and services. The chapter on money and banking will exemplify the fact that private ownership of the monetary system is immensely incompatible with a system of universal means of exchange of our goods and services. If anything I may leave the reader with more questions and options than solid answers because I am in search of a consensus and a mandate rather than to dictate a definitive absolute answer. Some people will readily agree with this assessment and others will fervently disagree therefore I will cite sources of the most truthful accurate information I can find for the benefit of both groups.
This writing is directed toward the people of the land currently know as the United States although the specifics are of such a commonality that there are certainly similarities to the governmental hierarchy established throughout the world. All nations all governments submit to the privately owned international monetary system to greater or lesser extent. Even countries such as the 7 remaining countries without banks owned by the Rothschild family: Abkhazia, Bolivia, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Russia, and Syria that are not directly tied to the dominating private monetary system monopoly hierarchy at times submit on the level of international trade, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Countries_without_Rothschild_Bank.png . The history of monetary system monopolization, war and a plethora of human tragedies related to this work describing history from a less biased viewpoint and from a philosophical position mostly unheard of can be considered and applied to most any nation because all nations are subject to this same economic monetary hierarchy. There has never been a true democracy where the decision making and the actions of a nation are determined by all birthright and naturalized citizens that are independent of the private central banking system. The Athenian Democracy was in a way direct democracy but in reality, in the 6th Century BC those eligible to vote were males over 20 years old and not slaves or foreign born residents, so in reality the Athenian government was a patriarchal aristocracy with democratic attributes, https://www.ancient.eu/Athenian_Democracy/.
If there was a central theme a main purpose to The West it is to present the case for a modern peaceful revolution through majority mandate. I realized in about 1992 that the United States government was controlled by and bought by money. I had no say in how the candidates for public office were chosen by the two party system. Around that time I began to say that my vote did not matter because of money in politics and I did not even have one in 300 millionth of a say, To this day I believe that the majority of us citizens of the United States are decent people, if we had a say we would not allow endless wars for corporate profit. I trust the majority far more than the elite occupiers of what is supposed to be our government. I want a national referendum process, recall and no confidence voting rights and I want direct participatory democracy so everyone who is interested in participating has a natural undeniable right to vote on the laws and appropriations we are to live under and within, I want my one in 300 millionth of a say, a meaningful vote.
There is a secondary purpose very much related to the main purpose stated. Due to the private ownership of, the private monopoly over our monetary system, an age old system dating back to before the so called American Revolution, a system with total unchallenged control over every transaction involving the exchange of goods and services using their money, their private system over our government, over our lives has been in place without challenge without pause since December 23, 1913 when Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act after both houses passed it under less than righteous honorable circumstances; definitely not in the best interests for the people they were elected to represent. They sold us out to the international banking cartel and since then we have not had even an honest notion of self determination as a country much less a nation with a valid constitution nor a valid republican form of government. The United States Government was set up as a Constitutional Republic not a plutocracy, therefore since the private banking cabal which the Federal Reserve is, violates several clauses of the United States Constitution, the government has not been legitimate for over 100 years. Don’t believe me? For further study begin by watching the following video for free on youtube: Century of Enslavement: The History of The Federal Reserve
Although some people express concern about global warming which most likely is caused at least partially by human fossil fuel use, whether religious, political and even main stream philosophical; no popular noticeable group of humans I am aware of actually consider the prospects of our long term survival as a species. The most successful or at least the most well rewarded people in our western culture are concerned with their short term profits, without consideration of our collective impact. We, the majority of people, regardless of national origin, have never had true self determination or sovereignty since the beginnings of privately owned and dominated monetary system, since the subject of money has such a great impact on all our lives, the issue of the private ownership of the monetary system will be discussed in greater detail in the chapter to follow titled: Open Secret: The Royal History of Monetary Order.
Our well being has already been compromised to the point of devaluing our working class lives. The enemy uses their privately owned monetary system to redistribute our work and our human worth to the few the wealthy of a stature unfathomable to the vast majority of people who actually provide goods and services to others receiving a mere subsistence in return.
I know that certain people that receive undue benefits as a result of the current state of government are going to accuse me of being a treasonous seditious criminal traitor for discussing the history of the United States in a way that will lead to the conclusion that a Western revolution is necessary for our well being and to insure us a fair sustainable future as a people and as a nation. Although the Declaration of Independence is not something that can be cited in a court of law; in clearly states within it, “That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.” Furthermore it is stated that, “ But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.” Also the notion of advocating for changing our government, especially by non-violent means is supported by Article 5 which discusses methods of changing the Constitution which is something that can be cited in a court of law if people who would try and prevent my free speech on the grounds of this writing being that of advocating seditious treasonous actions.
The method of amending, changing the Constitution according to the Constitution is such:
Article V (Article 5 – Mode of Amendment)
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
If I was accused of violating, 18 U.S. Code § 2383 Rebellion or insurrection or 18 U.S. Code § 2381.Treason, my defense is that I am calling for a Constitutional Convention under Article 5. The specifics and meaning of a ‘Convention’ are not very specific. Granted, for the most part they are stating that a convention consists of the legislature of either states or the federal government voting to hold a convention among themselves rather than allowing all citizens a say. None the less several states do have state referendum processes that can be undertaken independently of the will of the state government official’s will through petitions to get citizen organized referendum legislation on the ballot during an election. Also by definition a republic is run by the majority of citizens not elected officials which are supposed to work for us all; but for the most part they have worked for themselves and the unconstitutional monetary system monopolizing banker corporate nobility. In other words if a non governmental organization can demonstrate that a majority has signed on to a political movement demanding revolutionary change, that mandate by any other name, meets the definition of a Convention, those who work to subdue such majority mandated change then become the party of sedition.
Finally whether or not the majority is aware of all or even any of the history of 200 plus year government sanctioned crime spree documented in this book, none the less, every major survey or poll of the citizenry of the United States concerning their trust or belief in the government, their opinion as to the question, does or does not the government have the majority’s best interest in mind? Do you trust the government? Is the government doing a good and honest job? The surveys are consistently report the fact that the majority does not trust the government, nor do they believe the government is acting in an honorable way with all our interests in mind. Except for a small spike following September 11th 2001, citizen trust in the United States government has consistently been below 50% since the Nixon presidency PEW Research, https://www.people-press.org/2019/04/11/public-trust-in-government-1958-2019/ , Gallup shows slightly more favor to the government but for the most part less than 50% trust in the federal government, https://news.gallup.com/poll/5392/trust-government.aspx , NY Times shows more distrust than trust in government, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/22/us/politics/pew-trust-distrust-survey.html , a 2018 Pew survey, which found that 61 percent of Americans believe that the fundamental “design and structure” of American government needs “significant changes” to address the country’s challenges, https://csreports.aspeninstitute.org/Knight-Commission-TMD/2019/report/details/0287/Knight-Commission , https://www.people-press.org/2018/04/26/the-public-the-political-system-and-american-democracy/ . Here is another study including many countries throughout the world and once again easily viewed on page 46 where in the US only 44% of men and 35% of women trust the government, https://www.edelman.com/sites/g/files/aatuss191/files/2019-02/2019_Edelman_Trust_Barometer_Global_Report_2.pdf Therefore while suggesting a revolutionary may be frowned upon by those in power and wealth; the majority of US citizens reliably do not trust their government and therefore would vote for publicly organized peaceful well planned revolutionary change.
Many people believe philosophy is about opinions concerning one topic or another, in reality by dictionary meaning philosophy has more to do with how and on what basis we develop an opinion rather than an opinion itself. “the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline” https://www.lexico.com/definition/philosophy . The content I consider historical which is added to this work is subject-able to change. The only truth, the only facts we know as individuals exist within our own individual minds. Sensory data received from our five senses is processed by our brain and we form individual opinions. Each person sees things from a slightly different perspective, despite the differences many of us do come to agreement although our sensory perception as well as our cognitive cerebral ability to process information and develop an opinion is limited and remains an individual phenomenon. While computers are not an exact replica of human biological intelligence, a comparison of human thought process to computer hard drives, central processing units and random access memory can help us realize or understand our limitations. Despite these hurdles to the thought processes and relatively little action toward the common good, it is my opinion that there is a slight tendency, a moral premise which brings about a majority that are interested in what is good for all and place that moral standard above the tendency to care about only what is good for their individual selfish desires. I welcome reader alternative opinions and even descent because only through dialectical debate can we come to any collective consensus. While I believe it is important to consider history and strive to make life for all humans more equitable for all and establish a more egalitarian societal norm within a hierarchical feeding frenzy of inequality.
What really matters to us as individuals, as a nation and as the entire human species of the planet? I can’t answer that for everyone and in fact I would not want to because a diversity of thoughts and ideas is an advantage because when one set of thoughts and beliefs fail another will succeed. My personal view on this question can be answered simply, I want health, well being and longevity. Besides physical bodily health, this meaning of health includes a healthy mind and lifestyle which overlaps with the other two of my basic desires. Well being is the tricky one because it includes spiritual or mental well being as well as social dynamics and satisfying healthy normal desires for a fun entertaining, appreciative and productive life in the service of others and of course natural reproductive desires. Every person’s desires are legitimate and meaningful so long as their intentions are not to purposefully hurt or take undo advantage of another person or any living thing for that matter.
As I write this I know my individual mortality, I have since a young child when I thought that after I die I will be nothing forever, I was 5 years old I don’t have a clue where that devastating true thought came from in my mind, I will never forget it the exact setting, in Muskego Wisconsin when the crickets chirped while admiring a night light with a picture of a deer on it.
Now at 63 I am shyly semi-okay with my mortality and the eventual individual outcome that awaits us all. What I worry about, what I am concerned about is the destiny, the future, the long term survive-ability of the sentient sapient life form we claim to be, we share this regardless of our ideology. Individually we are a flash in the pan of life, our lifetime’s are short. Our religions tell us of eternity, an unfathomable amount of time yet we can’t look ahead to plan for even 100 years let alone thousands and millions. To boil down and condense this line of thoughts into one short sentence, I don’t want to go extinct, I want to be part of a life form that will become eternal, will break the time, space, matter barrier to become part of an omnipresent force of life of a spiritual or yet to be defined energy. What I am discussing here is a philosophy of the living. The present struggle for the health well being and longevity of those we love is a struggle for our true selves, we are but a reflection of those around us.
If you study statistics about the religious makeup of the United States 73% claim to be Christian, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_the_United_States History has proven religion to be as paradoxic as any other human activity, religion has been used for both good and bad reasons. There are plenty of Bible Gospel verses where Jesus speaks about love, goodness, compassion and being humble yet many people seem to use this religion to justify their hate and greed. Here is an article about 10 rich preachers: https://www.cheatsheet.com/entertainment/net-worth-richest-pastors-will-blow-your-mind.html/ , their individual wealth is from 8 to 300 million dollars, talk about hypocrisy, talk about the greediest straight up bold face liars at the top of the heap. I researched a few of them to determine what they think of Trump and I found that the “prosperity preachers” for the most part encourage people to vote for Trump and some even say we was ordained by God to be President of the United States. A preacher hired by Trump to work in the White House, who preaches ‘prosperity gospel’ has called his political enemies a ‘demonic network’, is what kind of preacher? Another profit preacher’s son recently said, “Dad told me when [he] laid hands on Trump, he received it stronger than anybody he had ever prayed for.’” Now two of the 10 multi millionaire preachers mentioned an issue or two that would lead you to believe they may have petty disagreements with Trump, not one of them will speak out against him. We all should treat people on an individual basis even if they subscribe to a certain Christian religious denomination we do not agree with. I know from experience that all members of a faith do not agree with all teachings of their faith or at least have their own personal angle to it. This is obvious by the number of denominations of Christianity, in the United States alone there are over 200 denominations http://www.mesacc.edu/~thoqh49081/handouts/denominations.html To set this aside I must say that I have studied the Bible quite extensively and was born into a Catholic family, yet to be honest my higher power is nature and except for occasional moments of influence, natural spirituality has been core to my belief system since I claimed to be agnostic at the age of 19 when I joined the Navy. One thing the founding fathers of the United States Government got correct as far as I am concerned is the separation of church and state and has forbidden religious tests to be eligible to hold a public office and making no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. So now to the fun part. There are three verses in the Gospels of the New Testament that I believe are important to being a good human, I have failed at times to live by each one of these but at least I try my best to follow them. They are: “Treat others the same way you want them to treat you.” Luke 6:31 NASB or “Treat others as you wish to be treated”; “Truly I tell you, whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for me.” Matthew 25:45 NIV or “The least among us shall be our masters”; “But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you” Matthew 5:44” KJV or simply “ Love Your Enemies”. It does not matter if you are a Hebrew, a Gentile, a Christian, a Muslim, a Pagan or an Atheist; you can follow these words if you only chose. If you could take Christianity and break it down to those three sayings, that is what I think it should be about. Nothing I write in this entire book is anti-Christian when you consider the Gospel also says: “And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.” Matthew 19:24 KJV. So would you choose to follow the rich preachers or would you consider my words in this book and make up your own mind? What is more important than the health well being and longevity of our individual and collective lives? The whole point of this paragraph is a person can be religious and also be part of the revolution of the New West. In fact considering Matthew 19:24 to pledge allegiance to a rich man who spreads propaganda that all poor people are lazy and want a free hand out while giving all sorts of benefits to rich people is far harder to reconcile and remain an honest Christian than it is for a Christian to support economic equality and a system where everyone who works hard for the benefit of others who have less than themselves can be justly rewarded rather than the lion’s share of the wealth going to a parasitic few.
A whole new branch of religion exists within your current religion, branch based in infinity and diversity considering our desires and possibilities. We are taught that there is one patriarchal God in main stream religion and it has become obvious to me that this one central uniting ideology has lead some scientists to believe in a big bang and a singularity. Life on Earth is not a singularity it is nearer to infinite diversity, the universe is if anything opposite of a singularity. The infinite nature of the universe is very humbling.
The phrase and title,’Philosophy of life’, is commonly used relating to individuals, an individual orientated philosophy rather and a collective philosophy geared toward what is necessary for our long term survival as a life form within the biosphere. We share this thin surface layer of Earth with a multitude of, a great variety of forms of life. Life as we know it, life that we humans more specifically our scientists divide life into a scheme of classes, of five kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae, Monera (bacteria), Protista, Fungi and Viruses. How I use ‘philosophy if life’ is in a context of a philosophy of maintaining our human health well being and longevity within the health well being and longevity of the entire ecological system of Earth.
I ask you to consider a centralized world view verses a diversity, decentralized belief system. The universe, even as it is viewed through our human perspective, from planet Earth, is much more nearer to an infinitely diverse place than it is a singularity. It is true that no two snowflakes, to have ever landed on Earth, are exactly the same https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/no-two-snowflakes-alike/; just as no two people are exactly the same https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-03/uowo-rpn032811.php. I believe the psychological indoctrination, programming belief in one God and a universal singularity within human history for the most part is a tool of hierarchy. Singularity helps support the ideology of class of people who believe they are worthy of their ill gotten wealth rather than the higher echelons of human society being occupied by the best planners and hardest workers who contribute the most to the betterment of less fortunate individuals and the human collective as a whole. We humans for the most part have been subjugated by a small group of elite minority that own a monopoly over our monetary system which has become the default means through which we trade our goods and services. I believe this means of exchange has to be publicly owned.
Most likely we will go extinct. It is also based on the fact that over 99% of life forms ever on Earth have gone extinct: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/mass-extinction/ This premise is based on the fact that with our our telescopes and technology, we have yet to discover life any other place in the universe near enough for us to view or explore. This means that life is, at least as we know it, attempt to understand it, is very rare in both space and time. Chances are that any other life form or living planet existing would have gone extinct long before we came about or will exist long after e are gone. This is why I believe we must plan for our survival in a time frame, for a time span in a rage we never thought about before. On the positive side one moment and seemingly endless time are beginning to merge. To be truly cognizant for an infinitesimal small moment of time is increasingly connected to all time which in itself just as space is infinite in it’s own existence, elemental physical properties don’t change, we have to change to overcome the limits of the physical realm. Even with our technological advancements seemingly expanding exponentially I feel that such things as the speed of light and omnipresence are so beyond us that human life would have to continue here on Earth for a span stretching into the million year range. Of course I have no sources on this speculation of humans achieving attributes of omnipotence and omnipresence we have up until now only bestowed upon God.
When I do positive things I can feel a small sort of echo back from the future even Buddha is said to have talked about being live every moment is a heightened state. To be part of rising from the physical realm of time space and matter, to a biological life form into a cerebral spiritual existence independent of physical universal restraints. Trade is the fundamental the concept, the force that has allows humans to become the dominant species and to an extent facilitates an extent of civility of development of a sociological state of community. Unless the mechanism of trade becomes owned by everyone equally we will continue to be lead by individuals and families that believe they are better than the rest of us. We need humble leaders with all of our lives, the value and quality of all our lives in mind.
Decentralized, Horizontal Organization
The universe and our interaction with it would be better not viewed as a singularity, this philosophical stance limits our possibilities. May I repeat, rephrase; our lives are closer to taking place in a realm of infinite diversity than a false notion of singularity. Vertical organization with the majority of the rewards of a society going to the few on the top requires an ideology of singularity, horizontal organization requires collective self respect with individual as well as group realization and equality of ability to achieve the individual’s potential to contribute to the group and receive fairly distributed rewards related to their contribution to the health well being and longevity of the group as well as the greater surroundings. Horizontal organization is sometimes called ‘flat’ organization. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flat_organization Funny, when a so called flat organization is utilized in a business, in practice it just eliminates middle management and further consolidates power among a few executives rather than actually distributing the power and wealth more equally among all employees. Also in a traditional business organization there are stock holders and investors that are the owners and receivers of the profits when there is a surplus after capital expenditures and worker’s salaries and wages. I do not advocate equal pay across the board, people who work harder and produce more, people with greater skills and understanding that can lead to more efficient higher quality and quantity production involving less work need to receive a larger reward than a less talented person. Also there will be some people better at organizing than others that are also worth more to the group than a below average worker that still provides a needed menial or clerical function. I believe horizontal organization can include equal work for equal pay allowing incentive for more talented hard working people to excel and be justly compensated. Horizontal organization is almost synonymous with a democratic workplace where the majority of the workers make the big decisions and supervise the managers who make some of the day to day decisions. When applied to government, we the majority will have national people’s referendum rights and direct participatory democracy rights to decide upon the laws and appropriations which we are to live under and within. There will still be an administrative branch of government that will implement more or less all the same services that the vertical hierarchy government now provides only instead of a CEO style president a let’s say chief secretary who answers to the people rather than having supreme power and authority will be the highest officer under the will of the majority of the people. There will be a similar variety of departments like a Department of Justice, the Department of Education, an Environmental Protection Agency and as many agencies and the majority sees fit.
Uncommon thoughts of a child
When I was 5 years old, I thought of and became afraid that I would die and become nothing for ever. This could be considered a depression or mental problem or very intelligent and insightful, human life is often an oxymoron. All as I considered at that age was my own individual death, not long after I heard that there were enough nuclear weapons to kill every man woman and child on the planet several times over, the mechanism for a homicidal suicidal self inflicted extinction is here. When dying is considered on an all inclusive level, on a homo sapiens human family level, on the probability of our extinction as a life form most likely taking a large portion of life forms within Earth’s biosphere with us, this thought becomes relevant to all our lives. Religion uses the thought of eternity in some separate state of existence yet an omnipotent omnipresent entity would possess properties beyond the limits of time. To care about an ulterior existence takes away from love and attention to this life of ours.
Why do people follow a religion and what does any religion have that people really are seeking? Are they not seeking a connection to an omnipresent omnipotent entity, some super natural connection to a power beyond the limits, the confines of time space and matter, beyond the physical realm? Any connection to an omnipotent and omnipresent possibility will come from a combination of human effort and natural phenomena that already exists in the universe once we discover it. An example is silicon semiconductor memory, we can store many hours of high definition video and sound on a memory chip the size of a penny. This small miracle is a combination of nature and humans using that nature in a way that was not possible until recently. So time travel and other things we still view as supernatural may come into being through a similar combination of natural substance, human awareness and ability to put the building blocks that are already there into position. We have to put loving one another ahead of enslaving and killing one another. It is almost on a spiritual plane to think about how to actually serve humanity, an ever growing human impact on the planet is no longer a viable option. We need to actually become sentient sapient beings to achieve our true potential as a life form, as living beings. Humans without external intervention could become capable of developing omnipotence and omnipresence discovering unknown vibrations or energies. I have a feeling, an opinion without sources or scientific basis that if such energy exists, even with the current rate of technological advancement continuing exponentially, the time frame for accomplishing such a feat, a state of omnipresence and omnipotence where one millisecond and infinity are an equal amount of time , to be accomplished, will take our human culture a million year time frame.
What is important to us as individuals? What is important to us as a biological form of life? I believe health, well-being and longevity are what we all really need and desire both individually and collectively if I can repeat and expand upon this thought. Earth is large from our individual point of view, yet it is basically a closed biological system. So then we must stop and rethink or think for the first time, what is biological life as we know it? What is the ultimate purpose of biological life?
Yes, eternity signifies the passing of time and an infinite amount of time. Then religion adds the distraction of a kingdom of heaven. It trains people to think about a mystical afterlife rather than learning, experiencing and caring about this life, the only life we have any reason to believe is reality. The Abrahamic religions each contain end of the world predictions and ideology which I find counter productive and self destructive. If we can’t learn to exist in this physical realm, how can we expect to exist in some sort of unproven alternative realm?
All closed system biological experiments result in the dominant species depleating and polutiung the resources necessary for that species to live. Our leaders are failing us. Our goal has to be the continuation of life as we know it.
Any God, any religion any philosophy, that does not support the notion of individual and collective health, well being and longevity of all humanity within the natural order, the biosphere of Earth and beyond is not conducive to a healthy mind nor helpful to our long term survive-ability.
Regardless of whether an individual’s philosophy of life, their belief system is based upon traditional Middle Eastern, European religion or any other structured traditional system of morals, based on the hierarchy of human monetary kingdom, of a premise of doctrine regarding the interactions of individuals with other individuals has become antiquated. Long term survival of our species has to become a concern of any legitimate human philosophy of life whether it be under the guise of a religion or not.
Personally I believe infinity is not a singularity and the notion of a god, everything revolving around a single entity is contrary to the way the universe actually is, a very diverse place.
A new age whether we like it or not. Our species has reached a population density where depleting and polluting the resources we need at a rate greater than nature replenishes them.
Unaddressed Problems for nation and planet as a whole are now before us. No individual is that much more worthy or gifted than any other to allow for some to be hungry for food and needing shelter while others are worth a billion dollars. The people that do the most work and invent the best products do not reap the greatest rewards and no where near what the owner investor class is rewarded for their royal noble positions.
When every individual nanosecond and eternity are the same amount of time, we finally have achieved what religious charlatans falsely promised to gain control of the simple minds of the masses. In spite of our scientific technological process, to predict a timeline necessary for human kind to achieve an omnipresent connection, a connection all our current scientists would deem impossible, would be in the million years time frame if such a notion is achievable at all.
The evil and dysfunction of US history
Part One of The West being a historical background presenting injustices built into the so called governmental systems and the human contrived social economic system, concentrating mainly on the United States; although critique of the falsehoods of representative democracy applies to many nations. These historic issues as presented are the basis of the grievances which I hope the readers agrees requires changes to the system and considers my proposals in the Second Part of the book. In the second part I ask myself, if I could choose a system of human organization what would it be? What will the United States be replaced by? Yes this is fiction, this is my idea of an organization of people to form a near Utopian society.
Despite constant attack endless propaganda and every possible means to brainwash citizens into supporting a corporate fascist agenda the wisdom of the majority exists. The majority is more compassionate and understanding than leaders who rise to power based on lineage and relationship to a few royal European families. The majority is the only force able to overtake the evil and greed of an unconstitutional royal class with rights of nobility, or in this case is it rites?
Capitalism: an economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. This is contrary to Article 1 section 8 of the US Constitution.
The history of capitalism is almost innocent, it was a way for farmers, early industrialists and merchants to exchange their products. The natural attraction to and advantage of a near universal means of exchange of goods and services is irresistible and the owners of the private monopoly over this fiat system have become a method of privilege and hierarchy with nothing to do with their contributions or service to others or humanity as a whole.
Capitalism teaches us to accumulate as much material wealth as we possibly can and those of infinite greed occupy positions of power and wealth, that if we were smart we could get as much as they. I on the other hand have always thought about how I could truly become a service to humanity within the limits of the natural biosphere our lives depend upon.
There has never been a country ruled democratically in the modern sense of governance.
We have arrived at a new era if we like it or not. Established economic thought backed by man made law is based on infinite resources on a large but finite planet. We are as a dominant species in a closed system experiment. If we are truly sentient sapient sapient beings we will voluntarily collectively reverse our population growth.
I don’t believe people will be ready for a revolution so log as we have basic necessities and appear to have a chance in achieving our basic desires like food, shelter, sex and so on. Mechanization and technology has made even the poorer people richer as far as material needs are concerned yet the disparity, the income inequality is as great as ever.
Religions popular in the US tell us about eternity which is defined and an unlimited amount of time for life after death, yet by definition God in beyond time and unaffected by time. Such notions, such programming distracts from thinking and understanding this life and living it to the fullest.
It is of better moral fabric and more connected to reality to be concerned about life as we know it within the universe we are all part of.
What are our goals in life as individuals and as a collective as a species living in a biosphere with many other species.
What are our priorities, our desires and concerns our dreams as individuals as a nation and as a human collective, a species which shares Earth’s biosphere with an abundant diversity of life forms?
For the wealthy it seems their goal is to gather as much wealth and power individually as possible. There are several factors in play that allow these people to become rich beyond measure from the standpoint of a working class person and family. If everyone was like these people the system would fall apart and self destruct until they could no longer exist. On the other hand if everyone worked and lived within their means exchanging their services of those of others everyone would have richer more meaningful lives. Why do we workers allow these tyrannical pathological lying greedy sociopaths to rule over us? One reason is even in their inbreed subhuman state they are smart enough to realize that their best weapon is propaganda because without that their monetary system manipulation would not work and they could not convince their stooges to kill for them. So we have the fraction of one percent that rule something that could not happen without an additional thirty to 40% that through a combination of rich people’s propaganda and no doubt a genetic level of loyalty to people portraying an alpha like persona no mater what their character moral premise perceived ideology may be. These seekers of leadership, wishing for an alpha to take charge, these followers determine their allegiance on an instinctual level, they cannot help it because it is not something that they consciously decided to do. How many times have smarter more compassionate and humane individuals risen up and spokrn truth just to be burned at the stake, hung or shot down in cold blood during the last 2000 plus years of vaguely recorded history? Remember, the winners of war write the history, but through the story of their exploits the victors trace their evil doings. The private owners of the monetary system do nothing to help prevent war and everything to profit from it. Although the people, the identity of the people John Kennedy is talking about here is not specific and most people would be programmed to believe is was communists his spring of 1963 speech fits the international banking cartel to a ‘T’ and there is no question tat these people have full, outright unchallenged control and ownership of every selected official in the United States as well as the vast majority of so called civilized nations, yes the owners decide what the meaning of civilized is.
Secret Societies, John F Kennedy April 27, 1961
The very word “secrecy” is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers which are cited to justify it. Even today, there is little value in opposing the threat of a closed society by imitating its arbitrary restrictions. Even today, there is little value in insuring the survival of our nation if our traditions do not survive with it. And there is very grave danger that an announced need for increased security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of official censorship and concealment. That I do not intend to permit to the extent that it is in my control. And no official of my Administration, whether his rank is high or low, civilian or military, should interpret my words here tonight as an excuse to censor the news, to stifle dissent, to cover up our mistakes or to withhold from the press and the public the facts they deserve to know.
But I do ask every publisher, every editor, and every newsman in the nation to reexamine his own standards, and to recognize the nature of our country’s peril. In time of war, the government and the press have customarily joined in an effort based largely on self-discipline, to prevent unauthorized disclosures to the enemy. In time of “clear and present danger,” the courts have held that even the privileged rights of the First Amendment must yield to the public’s need for national security.
Today no war has been declared–and however fierce the struggle may be, it may never be declared in the traditional fashion. Our way of life is under attack. Those who make themselves our enemy are advancing around the globe. The survival of our friends is in danger. And yet no war has been declared, no borders have been crossed by marching troops, no missiles have been fired.
If the press is awaiting a declaration of war before it imposes the self-discipline of combat conditions, then I can only say that no war ever posed a greater threat to our security. If you are awaiting a finding of “clear and present danger,” then I can only say that the danger has never been more clear and its presence has never been more imminent.
It requires a change in outlook, a change in tactics, a change in missions–by the government, by the people, by every businessman or labor leader, and by every newspaper. For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence–on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day. It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations.
Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed. It conducts the Cold War, in short, with a war-time discipline no democracy would ever hope or wish to match.
Nevertheless, every democracy recognizes the necessary restraints of national security–and the question remains whether those restraints need to be more strictly observed if we are to oppose this kind of attack as well as outright invasion.
We cannot ask John Kennedy what he meant by the following words, whether he did really mean the people I call monetary system monopolizing weapons dealing war profiteering I have labeled ZioNazis or if he was simply referring to Russia and China regimes as the communist foe. The latter is less likely in my opinion because the so called communists were never really communists in the first place and they never had the capability of undertaking the things the “monolithic” foe he defines has been capable of doing. It is true that John Kennedy did print United States Silver Certificate Notes independent of the federal reserve which would also indicate an effort to free the nation from a secret. Okay here are parts of his April 27, 1961 speech pertaining to my assumptions that he may have been referring to the same ruthless enemy of humanity as we are about to discuss concerning establishment of the New West:
What is the highest state of awareness, of understanding, of purpose in life. Moral directive precepts of religion in my opinion boil down and condense into loyalty and hierarchy without any greater directive for humanity. Although my thoughts on mathematics such a the study of limits are not directly related to math a thought pattern has emerged for me from the concept of limits. In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) “approaches” as the input (or index) “approaches” some value. Limits are essential to calculus (and mathematical analysis in general) and are used to define continuity, derivatives, and integrals. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limit_(mathematics) So the study of limits is plugging in numbers to an equation also called a function that approach infinity, zero or some number of interest. So when you apply the same concept of limits to religious and political propositions as well as philosophical notions what is the result of taking their presumptions to the limit.
Could everybody be extremely rich and have others provide goods and services for them without any meaningful contribution to others? No, it is not possible to have only parasites. On the other hand if everyone does a task whether it be planing, discovering, engineering or organizing, down to actually being there on the end of a shovel, technical skilled labor in an electro-mechanical trade or tending to the personal needs of the elderly, even entertaining and informing others is contribution as compared to investment and return with no contribution which because of the invent of money is the non-occupation that amasses the majority of the wealth in a capitalist system.
As I stated in the Introduction, I have thought these things out and reduced human needs and desires down to three basic areas including health well being and longevity. Yes well being is elusive and inclusive to say the least yet we cannot pursue these notions without health and actually being alive and capable of pursuing meaningful interaction, meaningful camaraderie Our sexual reproductive desires are real yet our individual health and longevity are not directly dependent upon sexual desire, upon seeking approval of friends and any sense of social hierarchy, expressions of artistry, a sense of self worth, all the things that make interaction between the individual and the world at large.
Introduction to money
Money is the biggest influence, the biggest factor in determining our station in life yet very few people have really studied what money is, where is comes from and what the human history of money is. People can attend college and major in business and or economy so they can learn to work in the system but they rarely learn the history of money and truly understand what this mysterious force in our lives really is.
Contrary to popular belief, to what we have been taught, our true wealth as humans is not related to money, money as we now know it is contrived by a sect of humans who get a cut of everything without any meaningful input of goods and services to others. Our wealth is Earth’s natural resources and human work that converts those raw resources into goods and services we humans need and desire for comfortable meaningful lives and well as our very lives. Trade and exchange of goods and services began to enrich human life through simple barter; they could trade grain for cattle etcetera so individual and small groups of people could concentrate on specific tasks to supply goods and service more efficiently. Like wise efficient successful farming and manufacturing by artisans and craftsmen would create a local surplus of certain goods which would become useless to the producers without merchants and a method of long distant trade for other materials and goods that are not in plenty locally in any given community, trade is a necessity in the building of a rich human culture. Our ancestors used intrinsic tangible material objects like chunks of salt, shells, beads to suffice and serve as a trade mechanism to allow exchange of surplus goods to be distributed. Then metallic coins with intrinsic tangible value were used because they contained a value yet could more easily be transferred and were for the most part of uniform value, a better method of trade than commodities such as cattle, salt and grain or pretty shells and beads. Coins made trade beyond barter work so craftsmen farmers and merchants could buy and sell things they themselves did not necessarily want to eventually purchase goods and services they did want. Coins became a money, a medium you could buy anything with. The next evolution or devolution of money depending on whether money should have intrinsic value or be based on fiat hit a middle ground where paper receipts representing gold were used to facilitate trade. Eventually the banks and clearinghouses issued notes supposedly based on gold deposits that were not actually backed by gold.
“Objects that occurred rarely in nature and whose circulation could be efficiently controlled emerged as units of value for interactions and exchange. These included shells such as mother-of-pearl that were widely circulated in the Americas and cowry shells that were used in Africa, Europe, Asia and Australia. Native copper, meteorites or native iron, obsidian, amber, beads, copper, gold, silver and lead ingots have variously served as currency. People even used live animals such as cows until relatively recent times as a form of currency.
The Mesopotamian shekel – the first known form of currency – emerged nearly 5,000 years ago. The earliest known mints date to 650 and 600 B.C. in Asia Minor, where the elites of Lydia and Ionia used stamped silver and gold coins to pay armies.
The discovery of hordes of coins of lead, copper, silver and gold all over the globe suggests that coinage – especially in Europe, Asia and North Africa – was recognized as a medium of commodity money at the beginning of the first millennium A.D. The wide circulation of Roman, Islamic, Indian and Chinese coins points to premodern commerce (1250 B.C. – A.D. 1450).”
So the evolution of money started with things like cattle grain, salt, beads, feathers, silver and gold with value in itself were used as the earliest forms of currency, meaning if the otherwise useful or valued thing were in surplus, it was used strictly for exchange rather than it’s intended use https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/businessclub/money/11174013/The-history-of-money-from-barter-to-bitcoin.html . Then gold and silver coins became a sort of standard currency, meaning that those coins had a universally accepted intrinsic as well as tangible value, which could be used to exchange things without the need of direct barter. In other words if one person has a large amount of grain and another person has eggs the person with the grain only needs so many eggs making direct bartering inefficient when there is a surplus. So historically even if the currency was privately controlled or controlled by a government; a near universal means of exchange of goods and services was a great benefit to many people.
Paper bills were first used by the Chinese, who started carrying folding money during the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907) — mostly in the form of privately issued bills of credit or exchange notes — and used it for more than 500 years before the practice began to catch on in Europe in the 17th century, http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1914560_1914558_1914593,00.html
Next, early bankers would issue paper notes rather than exchange the actual gold or silver and then when fiat money took over as the trade mechanism what is called fractional reserve banking came into the picture as a way to expand the money supply. So money itself as we know it today is a sort of legal pyramid Ponzi scheme, the money system is expanded and the money trickles down to the working class that ultimately along with the raw materials of nature provide all the goods and services we have. Some will not believe this story of modern money and others will adamantly disagree to protect their place in the false hierarchy of things. That is why I include many sources of information to help people make their own conclusions concerning money; the major determining factor of the material wealth of all our lives.
Historical Jewish involvement in trade and banking
Although this aspect of the history of money will invariably lead to accusations of prejudice, racism and more specifically anti-Semitism, contrary to such a notion as protecting an ethnic or religious group by such accusations; any discussion of the history of money without considering the involvement of certain Jews would be incomplete. Also the Jewish people historically have had a diverse set of beliefs within themselves. So despite some of them being bankers, other Jews were communists such as Karl Marx who along with Friedrich Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto and Leon Trotsky who worked very hard and suffered trials and tribulations for his anti-capitalistic beliefs and was eventually assassinated. Even up into recent times people like Howard Zinn, who said about himself, “something of an anarchist, something of a socialist”, spoke out against the ravages of capitalism. Noam Chomsky to this day speaks out against rabid capitalism something that some Jewish bankers seem to take pride in. To appease such persons who would be offended by well documented and proven history, I include Jewish writings expressing their involvement with money over the millennia. In human events, the cognitive development of our species necessary for trade, such evolution would certainly lead to development of a universal trade mechanism such as money will some day become. Humans, regardless of any higher anthropomorphic extra-biological spiritual intellectual ideological notion, correctly classify ourselves as Homo Sapiens Bipedal Primate Animal Mammals, yes this seems to be accurate. Therefore it is natural that we compete with one another as all forms of life do one way or another. Although the invent of money does not readily fit into a biological advantage and is a social instrument and phenomenon, once such a near monopoly is obtained by a group, a class of people by any name, they are not going to willingly give up the advantage of controlling trade without a multi-tactical method of persuasion. None the less, without a true publicly owned universal method of trade between ourselves none of us are truly free sentient sapient beings.
I wrote a research paper for an English composition class in 1982 about a study I did on what money is and where it came from. My study lead me to the fact that certain Jews have been involved in banking to the point of a practical monopoly for near two millennia. While loaning money with interest is frowned upon in both Christian and Islam Abrahamic religions, usury as charging interest has been lebeled, is not restricted by the Jewish religion. For centuries European royalty used court Jews as treasurers to circumvent this limitation and still claim that their rule was ordained by God. When I then said that Jews control money, I was labeled anti-Semitic and attacked for researching and expressing what I found out concerning the history of money which by default is our means of exchange of our goods and services determining every aspect of our lives.
Now many years later when writing this chapter to explain the history of money and relate it to our lives today, I found a reference on a Jewish web site https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/banking-and-bankers. It cannot be denied that some Jewish people are actually proud of their people being involved in the history of money and banking, rightfully and wrongfully so at the same time as oxymoron like it sounds. Almost any human endeavor has positive as well as negative consequences depending on who you ask or what perspective you are willing to take. The monetary system being private and Jews historically being part of banking is fact. This is so important to understand and important to the cause of equality in a reorganization of this country into a place where people are rewarded for their services to others rather than what began as a method to exchange goods and grown into a modern form of slavery to an elite class of Mammon worshiping overlords, not all of them are Jews and not all Jews are part of this cabal cartel, in fact a great many Jews have spoke out against private monetary system monopoly. So here is a complete article reprinted under 17 U.S.C. § 107 fair use which is written by Jews and is about the history of Jewish involvement in the business of banking:
Ancient Jewish History: Banking & Bankers
From the Jewish Virtual Library
There is little likelihood that financial transactions played a prominent role in the pre-Exilic epoch in Ereẓ Israel; according to the ethos of Jewish society, then founded on a pronounced agrarian structure, lending was part of the assistance a man owed to his neighbor or brother in need (cf. Deut. 23:21). During the Babylonian era Jews had greater opportunities to come into contact with a highly developed banking tradition and to participate in credit operations. After the Exile, commerce and credit certainly had a place in Ereẓ Israel. Though the society remained predominantly agrarian, Jerusalem had a number of wealthy families, including tax agents and landowners, who speculated and deposited their gains in the Temple, which had in some ways the function of a national bank (see *Heliodorus ). Organized banking probably arose in connection with Ma’aserot (“tithes”), in particular Ma’aser sheni, and the pilgrimages to Jerusalem, through the activities of the *money changers . The use of Greek terms indicates a strong Hellenistic influence on the establishment of banking. Meanwhile, the Jewish communities forming in the Diaspora, the most important at first being that of *Babylonia , were given an impulse toward a new way of life by the longstanding traditions of a capitalist type of economy existing around them (see Nippur and *Murashu ‘s sons). In Babylonia, Jews engaged in financial transactions: some were farmers of taxes and customs, and the wealthiest of them were landowners; among the latter were *Huna , the head of the academy of Sura, and Rav *Ashi . However, talmudic references show that the standards of an agrarian economy were still dominant and therefore gamblers and usurers were not thought trustworthy witnesses (see e.g., Sanh. 3:3).
Another important Jewish colony was to be found at *Alexandria , center of the trade between the Mediterranean and the Arabian and Indian world, where Jews were engaged not only in commerce and international trade but in moneylending too. According to *Josephus , a Jewish tax agent was able to make a loan of 3,000 talents. The *alabarch Alexander Lysimachus, who loaned King *Agrippa I 200,000 drachmas (Jos., Ant., 18:159–160), was also the steward of Antonia, mother of Emperor Claudius. Another Alexandrian Jew was treasurer to Candace, queen of Ethiopia.
With the rapid development of city life and commerce in the caliphate of Baghdad from the late eighth century and the transition of the majority of Jews under caliphate rule from agriculture and a village environment to the cities, banking became one of the occupations of some upper-class Jews, especially in Baghdad and later under the Fatimids (from 968) in Egypt. This Jahbadhiyya, as it was called, was a form of banking based on the savings and economic activities of the whole Jewish merchant class and not only on the fortunes of the very rich: the bankers loaned to the state and its officers money deposited with them as well as from their own fortunes. The vast sums at the disposal of these Jewish bankers and their relative immunity from confiscation by the autocratic authorities both tend to confirm that these Jewish “court bankers” from the beginning of the tenth century onward were well-known to their Muslim debtors as a kind of “deposit banker” for Jewish merchants. Under the Fatimid caliph al-Mustanṣir the brothers *Abu Saʿd al-Tustarī and Abu Naṣr Ḥesed b. Sahl al-Tustarī (both died in 1048) were influential in the finances of Egypt. With the rise of *Saladin and the foundation of the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt (1169), the position of the Jews deteriorated but they were able to continue their moneychanging activities at least. Toward the end of the Mamluk period (1517), Samuel, a moneychanger in Cairo, must have possessed considerable wealth, for the Arab chronicler Ibn Iyās tells that the sultan extorted from him more than 500,000 dinars. During the Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula, Córdoba Jews were active in the financial administration in the tenth and eleventh centuries. The responsa of this period show a highly developed money economy existing before the First and Second Crusades.
EARLY MERCHANTS IN EUROPE
Persecution, such as occurred in Alexandria in 414 or the oppressive measures promulgated in the Byzantine Empire beginning with *Constantine and intensified under *Justinian , may have contributed to the fact that from the fifth century Jewish merchants followed their Greek and Syrian counterparts to Gaul and not only traded in luxury goods but also loaned money. With the disappearance of the Syrians and Greeks from Europe in the seventh century, the Jewish merchants were able to expand. Within the administration of the Merovingian kings (from 481) Jews possibly farmed taxes or advanced money on revenues to high officials; according to Gregory of Tours (c. 538–94), the count of Tours and his vicar were indebted to the Jew Armentarius. During the Carolingian period (from the mid-eighth century), Jews settled in the Rhineland again as they had done during the Roman Empire – some of them lending money on pledges or giving money to merchants in a kind of commenda partnership. Archbishop Anno of Cologne (d. 1075), as well as Emperor Henry IV (1056–1106), borrowed money from Jews.
THE MONEYLENDERS IN EUROPE
After the First Crusade (1096) the Jewish merchant, in his necessarily long journeys, no longer enjoyed even minimal physical security. In Western and Central Europe, especially in *Spain , the crystallization of the essentially Christian nature of the rising city communes combined with this insecurity to drive out the Jews from commerce and prohibit them from engaging in crafts. In France, England (up to 1290), Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, and northern and central Italy, Jews had to turn to loan-banking on a larger or smaller scale in order to make a living. The canonical prohibition against taking interest by Christians, which was stressed in successive *Church councils (especially the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215), and the vast opportunities for capital investment in land and sea trade open to the wealthy Christian made lending on interest for consumer and emergency needs virtually a Jewish monopoly in Western and Central Europe between the 12th and 15th centuries. By the 13th century the notion that the Wucherer (“usurer”) was a Jew was already current, for example, in the writings of *Berthold of Regensburg , Walther von der Vogelweide, and Ulrich von Lichtenstein. The word judaizare became identical with “taking interest.” Testimony from the 12th century shows that moneylending was then becoming the main occupation of the Jews; this was the case of those of Bacharach (1146) and of Muenzenberg (1188). However, there is little data to suggest that Jewish banking transactions were on a large scale even in the 13th century, but there is evidence that the bishop of Basle had debts with Basle Jews and that various monasteries had Jewish creditors.
The transition from a natural economy to a money economy in the course of the “commercial revolution,” and the stabilization of territorial principalities opened new possibilities for Jewish banking activity, especially in the Rhineland and in southern Germany. Jews from Siegburg, Trier, Mainz, Speyer, Strasbourg, and Basle as well as from Ulm and Nuremberg appear as sources of credit. The most important banking transaction in the first half of the 14th century went through the hands of Vivelin the Red, who transmitted 61,000 florins in gold which King Edward III of England paid to Baldwin of Trier for becoming allied with him against France. Margrave Rudolf III of Baden was indebted to David the Elder, called Watch, and to Jekelin of Strasbourg and his partners. Muskin and Jacob Daniels served the archbishop of Trier in the administration of his finances; during the first half of the 14th century, Daniels was probably the most important Jewish banker of the Rhineland. He was followed in the service of the archbishop by his son-in-law Michael. At the same time Abraham von Kreuznach at Bingen had a similar position with the archbishop of Mainz. Gottschalk von Recklinghausen and his company was another group on the lower Rhine. Such banking activity is recorded in other parts of Central Europe as far as Silesia.
Moneychanging and coinage privileges were often combined with moneylending, and Jews were frequently the sole agents arranging loans. From the first half of the 12th century moneychanging as a special form of banking is supported by documentary evidence. To spread the risk, partnerships of between two and ten persons were formed. As security, custom at first recognized mainly pledges, but from the middle of the 13th century the letter of credit came into use, though princess till preferred to pledge jewels. Often, instead of a pawn, bail was given by several persons. In western Germany hypothecation of real estate was preferred, and in this way Jews acquired in pledge houses, vineyards, farms, villages, castles, towns, and even seigneuries. Interest rates do not seem to have exceeded 36% but in the case of deferred payment they could rise to 100% or beyond. From the 12th century popes and princes exploited the financial capacity of the Jews by frequent remission of debts or forced loans. The *Black Death and consequent persecutions of Jews gave rulers an opportunity forcibly to seize property and to restore pawns and letters of credit to debtors. The liquidation of Jewish debts by King *Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia around the end of the 14th century is a well-known example of such royal rapacity. With these and other measures and the rise of the merchant class, who gradually took over the function of loan-bankers to the princes and even to emperors during the 15th and early 16th centuries, the Jews were deprived of imperial protection and forced to leave the towns. They retired to the small seigneuries or migrated to Eastern Europe, where a less-developed economy offered them possibilities of making a livelihood. In Bohemia, Hungary, and in Poland and Lithuania both princes and nobility made use of their financial help. As the Eastern European kingdoms developed with the colonization of the forests, Jews played an increasing part in commerce and especially in the *arenda . In the larger towns some engaged in moneylending and banking activities.
In 12th-century France moneylending was an important Jewish business, but in the 13th century Jewish lenders came up against the superior competition of the Lombards, a rivalry even more intense in the Netherlands. In England, where *Aaron of Lincoln and *Aaron of York were powerful bankers, a special *Exchequer of the Jews was set up to centralize Jewish transactions. However in the 13th century the crown began to rely on the greater resources of the Cahorsins and Italian bankers and in 1290 the Jews were expelled. In Italy Jewish bankers could expand their sphere of activity under the silent protection of the popes, despite resistance on the part of the Christian burghers (see *Popes and the Jews). From the second half of the 13th century they spread throughout central Italy and gradually expanded toward the north, migrating at first to the smaller and medium-sized towns. In Pisa and then in Florence the Da *Pisa family became important loan-bankers; in Florence in 1437 Cosimo de’ Medici permitted a Jewish group to establish four loan-banks; in Venice in 1366 Jews, probably of German origin, obtained the right to lend on pledges. Here as in other places in northern Italy, Jewish loan-bankers from the south came into competition with Jews migrating from Germany or southern France. Finally only a few towns, such as Milan and Genoa, refused to admit Jewish loan-bankers. However, their activities were seriously challenged when the anti-Jewish preaching of the *Franciscans resulted in the establishment of branches of the *Monti di Pietà toward the middle of the 15th century.
The Iberian Peninsula after the Christian reconquest offers many examples of large-scale credit activities and tax farming by Jews. It is known that they provided money for armaments against the Moors. El Cid borrowed from Raquel and Vidas, Jews of Burgos, for his expedition against Valencia. King Alfonso VI of Castile (1072–1109) also obtained loans from Jews for his military expeditions. His successors employed Jews in the financial administration, especially as almoxarifes (revenue collectors), an activity combined with moneylending. Thus, Judah Ibn Ezra was in the service of Alfonso VII, Joseph Ibn Shoshan of Alfonso VIII, and Solomon *Ibn Zadok (Don Çulema) and his son Çag de la Maleha were almoxarifes in the service of Alfonso X, while Meir ibn Shoshan served as his treasurer. When Sancho IV (1258–95) came to the throne, *Abraham el-Barchilon was prominent in the financial administration, supervising the farming of the taxes. Generally, in Castile the Jews abstained from farming the direct taxes, which from 1288 the Cortes opposed. The Jews therefore tended to prefer the administration of the customs and other rights belonging to the office of almoxarife. The court of Aragon relied on Jewish financial administrators in a similar fashion. King James I employed *Benveniste de Porta as a banker, probably giving him as security for his advances the office of bailiff of Barcelona and Gerona. Judah de la *Cavalleria , the most powerful Jew in the Aragonese administration, had control over all the bailiffs of the kingdom. Under Pedro III the family of *Ravaya were most influential. Though during the 14th century the Jews in Aragon and Navarre were subjected to increasing pressures, Judah Ha-Levi and Abraham Aben-Josef of Estella were general farmers of the rents under Charles II and Charles III of Navarre. In Castile – in spite of the Cortes’ opposition – Jews such as the *Abrabanel family in Seville continued to be active as almoxarifes. The young Alfonso XI appointed Joseph de *Écija as his almoxarife mayor (c. 1322); Pedro the Cruel (1350–69) made Samuel b. Meir ha-Levi *Abulafia of Toledo, known as the richest Jew of his time, his chief treasurer, and Henry of Trastamara had Joseph *Picho as his financial officer (contador mayor) despite his promise to remove all Jews from royal office (1367).
The persecutions of 1391 and the mass conversions which followed brought an important change. Some of the Conversos were able to use the act of baptism to climb to high positions in the financial administration: examples are Luis de la *Cavalleria , chief treasurer under John II of Aragon, Luis *Sánchez, royal bailiff of the kingdom of Aragon (c. 1490), and his brother Gabriel *Sánchez , who was treasurer-general. Under Henry IV of Castile (1454–74) Diego Arias de Avila was the king’s secretary and auditor of the royal accounts; in spite of Diego’s unpopularity his son Pedro succeeded him. Even Isabella the Catholic depended on the financial advice of the Jew Abraham *Senior , from 1476 chief tax gatherer in Castile, and Isaac *Abrabanel , who after having been banker of Alfonso V of Portugal served as the queen’s private financial agent and loaned her a considerable sum for the war against Granada. The Converso Luis de *Santangel , chancellor and comptroller of the royal household and great-grandson of the Jew Noah Chinillo, loaned Isabella money to finance Columbus’ expedition to America. Though some men like Isaac Abrabanel, who went to Naples, remained faithful to Judaism, a number of Jews of Spanish origin stayed in Portugal and, after accepting baptism, rose to financial influence there, especially in combination with the East Indian spice trade. Prominent among them were Francisco and Diogo *Mendes . The latter, who took up residence in Antwerp, became one of the most important merchant bankers there, lending money to the king of Portugal, the emperor, and Henry VIII of England. The firm “Herdeiros de Francisco e Diogo Mendes” was administered for some time after Diogo’s death (1543) by Francisco’s widow, Doña Beatrice de Luna ( Gracia *Nasi ) and her nephew João Miques ( Joseph *Nasi ). They subsequently immigrated to Turkey, where the latter combined commercial and banking activity with political influence. Another to rise to high position was Alvaro Mendes from Tavira, Portugal, who in Constantinople took the name Solomon *Abenaes . Jewish money-changers and tax farmers were to be found in many places of the Ottoman Empire. After the union between Spain and Portugal (1580), a number of influential Conversos took the opportunity to invest their capital in financing the various ventures of the crown, provisioning the army in Flanders and in the East Indies, and supplying contracts for Africa. Their activities expanded especially after the financial crisis of 1626 and continued until the Portuguese revolt of 1640 which restored independent sovereignty to the country. After this all members of the gente de nação (as Conversos were called) living in Spain became suspect. The last important financial venture by *New Christians in Portugal was the financing of the Brazil Company established in 1649. However, Jewish involvement in banking proper really begins with the activities of those Conversos who, fleeing the Inquisition in Portugal and Spain, settled in *Antwerp , *Hamburg , and *Amsterdam , some remaining nominally Christian and some openly returning to Judaism. In Antwerp the Ximenes and Rodrigues d’Evora families were outstanding among an important group of merchant bankers who had commercial relations extending as far as the East Indies and Brazil. While they remained Catholics (like the Mendes de Brito group in Portugal), those who emigrated to Hamburg and Amsterdam formed Sephardi communities. In Hamburg they participated in the founding of the bank in 1619; 30 (by 1623, 46) local Jews were among its first shareholders, and some of them were financial agents for various North European courts, especially those of Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein. Most famous in Antwerp were Diego Teixeira de Sampaio ( Abraham *Senior ), consul and paymaster general for the Spanish government, and his son Manuel (Isaac Ḥayyim Senior), who succeeded him as financial agent of Christina of Sweden. Manuel Teixeira was an outstanding member of the Hamburg exchange and participated actively in the transfer of Western European subsidies to the German or Scandinavian courts.
At Amsterdam at first only a few Jews were shareholders in the bank founded in 1609 and of the East India Company. One hundred and six Portuguese had accounts in 1620. Generally their resources were not sufficiently great to add any special weight to the formative stage of Amsterdam capitalism. Through Holland’s developing overseas trade, especially with Brazil (until 1654) and then with the West Indies, as well as through the growth of the Amsterdam capital market and the transfer of subsidies and provisioning of armies through Amsterdam, Jewish financiers rose to importance in the exchange market, and were especially active in trading company shares. Outstanding were the *Pinto family and Antonio (Isaac) Lopez *Suasso (Baron d’Avernas le Gras); nevertheless the wealth of the Sephardi families remained far below that of their Christian counterparts. In the second half of the 18th century the Pinto family remained prominent, and another influential financier of Sephardi origin was David Bueno de *Mesquita .
Partly as a consequence of the marriage between Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza (1662), and especially after William and Mary became joint sovereigns of England (1689), London, too, became a center of Sephardi banking, leading figures being Anthony (Moses) da Costa, Solomon de *Medina , and Isaac Pereira. In the reign of Queen Anne (1702–14), Manasseh *Lopes was a leading banker; during the 18th century Samson *Gideon , Francis and Joseph *Salvador , and the *Goldsmid brothers, leading members of the Ashkenazi community, were outstanding. In the middle of the 18th century Jacob Henriques claimed that his father had planned the establishment of the Bank of England (1694).
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
Only a few Jewish financiers, such as Joseph zum goldenen Schwan at Frankfurt or Michel *Jud , were active in the German principalities in the 16th century. In the early 17th century the Hapsburgs employed the services of Jacob *Bassevi of Treuenberg of Prague, Joseph Pincherle of Gorizia, and Moses and Jacob Marburger of Gradisca. The rise of the absolute monarchies in Central Europe brought numbers of Jews, mostly of Ashkenazi origin, into the position of negotiating loans for the various courts, giving rise to the phenomenon of *Court Jews . The most famous and most active of them in financial affairs were, in the second half of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, Leffmann *Behrends in Hanover, Behrend *Lehmann in Halberstadt, Bendix Goldschmidt in Hamburg, Aaron Beer in Frankfurt, and Samuel *Oppenheimer and Samson *Wertheimer in Vienna. Later Diego d’ *Aguilar , and the *Arnstein and *Eskeles families became prominent. In the early 18th century Joseph Suess *Oppenheimer was the outstanding figure in southern Germany; his financial influence was widespread, especially in Wuerttemberg, until his fall and execution in 1738. Important court bankers around the end of the 18th century were Israel *Jacobson in Brunswick, the *Bleichroeder family in Berlin, Simon Baruch and Solomon Oppenheimer in Bonn, the *Rothschilds in Frankfurt, the Reutlinger, Seligmann, and *Haber families in Karlsruhe, the Kaulla family in Stuttgart, and Aron Elias Seligmann, later baron of Eichthal, in Munich.
In the 15th and beginning of the 16th century the Italian loan-bankers reached their greatest eminence, including the Pisa, *Volterra , Norsa, Del Banco, *Rieti , and Tivoli families. In their wealth and style of life these men belonged to the Renaissance milieu as much as the artists and men of letters. However, with the expansion of the institution of the Monte di Pietà and the restrictive policy of the popes of the Counterreformation, their influence declined. The Da Pisa disappeared from Florence in 1570. However there were still between 60 and 70 loan-bankers operating in Rome toward the end of the 16th century and a century later about 20 were still in existence. In the first half of the 16th century about 500 loan-bankers were active throughout Italy; toward the end of the century about 280 remained in 131 places. Abraham del Banco was involved in the establishment of the famous Venetian Banco Giro in 1619.
Jewish matrimonial and property laws permitted women to manage capital they acquired through dowry, inheritance, and, in case of innocent divorce or widowhood, their ketubbah. While ketubbah payments to a widow or divorcée might include real estate and houses, highly portable pawn pledges and bonds were particularly suitable. The percentage of women involved in moneylending was high: they were responsible for half of all loans in Northern France in the 13th and 14th centuries and in many communities in 13th century England, one-third in 41 German communities between 1350 and 1500, and from one-twentieth of the larger to one-third of the small loan sums in Austria. These figures represent loans granted by women alone (often widows) or at the head of a business consortium and do not include the many women who acted in conjunction with their husbands or relatives. Some women, most of them widows, were active in top-level business with the nobility or rulers. Such female “top bankers” with loans from 1,000 to 12,000 florins, like *Licoricia of Winchester (active 1242–77), Plume of Klosterneuburg (Austria, 1320–40), Reynette of Koblenz (1365–94), Zorline of Frankfurt (ca. 1380–95), Gentlin of Konstanz (ca. 1420–30), Eva (Hefe) zum Buchsbaum of Frankfurt (1401–52), Ricke of Frankfurt (1451–71), and Sara, called Gutlein of Wiener Neustadt (c. 1475–80), sometimes achieved considerable influence. Due to their high tax contributions, some gained administrative power as tax collector (Selda of Radkersburg, Styria, 1338) and even as parnesset, an elected officer of the local Jewish community ( *Kaendlein of Regensburg 1354, Joseppine of Regensburg 1374). Like wealthy male Jews, women were arrested to extort high ransoms and became victims of burglary and murder ( *Dulce of Worms 1196, Licoricia of Winchester 1277, Kaendlein of Regensburg c. 1364). In contrast to the Sephardi world, women’s mobility was not restricted in Ashkenaz. Although contrary to halakhic standards of female personal modesty, contacts with Christians in connection with business dealings were permitted; business-women traveling alone were allowed to disguise themselves as men or as nuns for self-protection (Sefer Hasidim). Some women used their husband’s seal (Reynette of Koblenz 1374, 1384, Ricke of Frankfurt 1451–71), others had their own seals (Disslaba of Regensburg 1398). Some signed their records with their Hebrew signature (Mirl of Friesach, Carinthia 1372, Plumel of Maribor 1442, Priba of Maribor 1468, Leah of Voitsberg, Carinthia 1496). Ricke of Frankfurt left a German will (1470). Many women submitted their financial cases to non-Jewish courts and took oaths. Although systematic research on women’s business activities in early modern Europe has yet to be done, it appears that the rate of female involvement was not as high as in medieval times. The outstanding personality was *Glueckel of Hameln (1646/47–1724); also important were other wives and widows of the early “Court Jews,” Brendele of Frankfurt (active c. 1541–60), Gertraud Munk of Vienna and Prague (1590–1614), and Esther *Liebmann of Berlin (1677–1713).
[Martha Keil (2nd ed.)]
19th and 20th centuries
Jewish banking in the 19th century begins with the rise of the house of *Rothschild in Frankfurt, a city which became the new banking center of Europe as a result of the political upheaval caused by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. The founder of the house (which became the symbol of the 19th-century type of merchant banking), Meyer Amschel Rothschild started as a banker to the elector of Hesse-Kassel. His sons rose to prominence as the major European bankers Amschel Mayer in Frankfurt, Solomon Mayer in Vienna, Carl Mayer in Naples, James Mayer in Paris, and Nathan Mayer in London. After the death of Abraham Goldsmid and Francis Baring in 1810, Nathan Rothschild became the dominant figure in the London money market. The majority of the English financial dealings with the continent went through the Rothschilds’ offices. After the Congress of Vienna (1815) the Rothschilds extended their business into most European states, specializing in the liquidation of inflated paper currencies and in the foundation of floating public debts. In 1818 they made loans to European governments, beginning with Prussia and following with issues to England, Austria, Naples, Russia, and other stales, partly in collaboration with Baring, Reid, Irving and Company. Between 1815 and 1828 the total capital of the Rothschilds rose from 3,332,000 to 118,400,000 francs.
THE MERCHANT BANKERS
Prominent merchant bankers in Germany besides the Rothschilds were Joseph *Mendelssohn and Samuel *Bleichroeder . Mendelssohn founded his firm in Berlin in 1795, and was joined by his brother Abraham *Mendelssohn in 1804; they issued state loans for industrial development to several foreign countries, particularly Russia. Samuel Bleichroeder, Berlin correspondent of the Rothschilds, established his own business in 1803. His son Gerson Bleichroeder became a confidant of Bismarck and served as his agent for financing the war of 1866 and for the transfer of the French war indemnity in 1871. The Bleichroeder bank also made loans to foreign states. After the death of Gerson Bleichroeder in 1893 his partner Paul Schwabach continued the business. The brothers Moses, Marcus, and Gerson *Warburg founded a bank in Hamburg in 1798. Its main business was concerned with the Hamburg overseas trade, especially transactions with England and the United States. Paul M. *Warburg , a brother of Max M. *Warburg , head of the Hamburg bank before World War I, established a branch office in New York. Toward the end of the 18th century J.M. *Speyer , through his bank’s provisioning of armies and exchange business, had a capital of 420,000 florins, the largest Jewish fortune in Frankfurt at that time. In 1809 G.J. Elissen opened a banking house which took the name of J.L. Speyer-Elissen in 1818 and Lazard Speyer-Elissen in 1838. Philipp Speyer and Co., the U.S. branch, negotiated the American credit during the Civil War, participated in the development of the railroads in America, and conducted transactions in Mexico and Cuba, partly in association with the Deutsche Bank. In 1928 Speyer amalgamated with C. Schlesinger, Trier, and Company to form Lazard Speyer-Elissen K.a.A., Frankfurt and Berlin. The bank established by Solomon *Oppenheim in Bonn in 1789 acquired a leading position; at the beginning of the 19th century Solomon moved to Cologne, where his son Abraham became one of the most influential bankers in the Rhineland, financing insurance associations, railroad construction, and industrial investment.
Jewish bankers played an important part in the development of joint stock banks. Ludwig *Bamberger and Hermann Markuse were among the founders of the Deutsche Bank (1870), which was active in financing German foreign trade. The Disconto-Gesellschaft, established by David Hansemann in 1851, which amalgamated with the Deutsche Bank in 1929, had several Jewish partners. Eugen *Gutmann was the main founder of the Dresdner Bank, and Abraham Oppenheim was one of the founders of the Bank fuer Handel und Industrie (Darmstaedter Bank; 1853). The leading personality in the Berliner Handelsgesellschaft (established in 1856) was Carl *Fuerstenberg . Richard Witting, brother of Maximilian Harden, was one of the directors of the National bank fuer Deutschland; when it merged with the Darmstaedter Bank in 1921, Jacob *Goldschmidt , then director of the latter, took control of the new enterprise. In 1932 the two other most important banks in Germany, the Deutsche Bank and the Dresdener Bank, were directed by Oskar *Wassermann and Herbert Gutman respectively.
In England, banks were established by Sir David *Salomons (London and Westminster Bank, 1832), the Stern brothers (1833), Samuel *Montagu (1853), Emile Erlanger (1859), the Speyer brothers, *Seligman brothers, and S. Japhet and Co., many of them immigrants from Frankfurt; the Speyer bank negotiated loans on behalf of Greece, Bulgaria, and Hungary, as well as for Latin American states. David *Sassoon and Company, established in Bombay in 1832, had branches throughout the Orient, handling extensive transactions. Sir Ernest *Cassel , partly in association with Sir Carl Meyer, established banks in Egypt and Turkey. Industrial banks were organized by Sir Moses *Montefiore and the Anglo-American Corporation, which was connected with the diamond and finance corporation of A. Dunkelsbueler, established by Sir Ernest *Oppenheimer . In South Africa the General Mining and Finance Corporation was set up by Hamilton Ehrlich and Turk, and one of the most important enterprises in South African financing was the Barnato brothers’ company.
In France Achille *Fould , a competitor of the Rothschilds, was a supporter of Napoleon III and later his finance minister. Together with his brother Benoit he inherited the Paris firm of Fould, Oppenheimer et Cie., which had been established by his father. Meanwhile the brothers Emile and Isaac *Péreire , who moved to Paris from Marseilles in 1822, financed railway construction in France and Spain. Through the Crédit Mobilier, organized in 1852, they mobilized credit for various investment projects, but ran into difficulties in 1867. Among the other important Jewish banks was the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas (1872), with Henri Bamberger as one of the directors. The leading position among the private banks was held by Rothschild; from 1889 to 1901 all loans to Russia from Paris were issued through the Rothschild bank. Baron Maurice de *Hirsch from Munich, son-in-law of the Brussels banker Raphael Jonathan *Bischoffsheim , invested successfully in railroad construction. Other Jewish banks were those of Louis Dreyfus and Lazard Frères. In Italy, where Luigi *Luzzatti ‘s agricultural associations were largely philanthropic, Jewish bankers played a leading part in the foundation of the Banca Commerciale Italiana and the Credito Italiano. The Rothschilds, Sterns, and Goldsmids also invested money in Spain and Portugal.
RUSSIA AND EASTERN EUROPE
A number of Jewish banks were established in Vienna during the 19th century, the most influential of which was Arnstein and Eskeles. This bank however was declared bankrupt in 1859. Weikersheim and Company and from 1821 Salomon Rothschild also established banks in Vienna. Jews participated in the foundation of the Niederoesterreichische Eskomptgessellschaft (1853) and the Kreditanstalt (1855), which made an essential contribution to the development of the Vienna stock exchange and extended international loan facilities, also investing in industry and railroads. Leading private banks in Hungary were of Jewish origin, such as the Ungarische Allgemeine Kreditbank (Hungarian General Credit Bank; established in 1867) with Siegmund Kornfeld as a general director, the Pester Ungarische Kommerzial-bank (Hungarian Commercial Bank at Pest), established in 1841 by Moritz Ullmann, and the Ungarische Hypotheken-bank (Hungarian Hypothecary Credit Bank; 1869) with Nándor (Ferdinand) Beck de Madarassy as its general director. In Prague the *Petschek family established a bank in 1920; in Galicia, under the Austrian regime, Brody (Nathanson, Kallir) and Lemberg had Jewish banks. Between the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th Jewish banks of some importance rose in Russia. In St. Petersburg Nicolai and Ludwig *Stieglitz , immigrants from Germany, opened a bank in 1803, which under Ludwig (who with his brother was converted to Christianity in 1812) became one of the leading financial institutions in Russia. Otherwise Jewish banking activity was limited to southern Russia, especially to Berdichev and Odessa. In 1860 Yozel (Yerzel) *Guenzburg , originally a tax farmer, established the St. Petersburg bank J.Y. Guenzburg, and later the discount and credit bank there, managed by his son Horace; Guenzburg also established banks in Kiev and Odessa. Lazar (Eliezer) *Poliakoff opened a bank at Moscow in 1860 and participated in the foundation of the Moskowsky Zemelny Bank and other Moscow banks. Poliakoff and his two brothers also founded banks in southern Russia. Abram *Zak was director of the Petersburg Discount and Credit Bank (1871–93), and Soloveitchik established the Siberian Trade Bank. At the beginning of the 20th century private banks of some importance were those of H. *Wawelberg in St. Petersburg, and O. Chayes and R. Sonschein and Company in Odessa.
Toward the end of the 18th century several bankers such as Koenigsberger, Levy, and Simon Simoni emigrated from the west to Poland. Jacob *Epstein , court purveyor to King Stanislas II Augustus, founded an important dynasty of bankers. The Polish revolt of 1863 caused the bankruptcy of many Jewish banks. The bank of Wilhelm Landauer in Warsaw, established in 1857, closed in that year. However, Landauer returned to Warsaw some years later and opened a joint stock company in 1913. Mieczyslaw Epstein founded the Warsaw Discount Bank in 1871. Leopold *Kronenberg took part in the foundation of the Warsaw Credit Union in 1869 and the following year established the first joint stock bank in Poland, Bank Handlowy at Warsaw. The Natanson family bank was in operation between 1866 and 1932. In Romania, Maurice *Blank (d. 1921) established the house Marmorosch, Blank and Company, which his son, Aristide, directed after him.
SCANDINAVIA AND THE NETHERLANDS
The Goeteborgs Bank in 1848 was established in Sweden through the agency of L.E. Magnes, Morris Jacobsson, Edward Magnus, and others. Theodor *Mannheimer was the first managing director of Scandinaviska Kreditakteibolaget, and Louis *Fraenkel managed Stockholm’s Handelsbank from 1893 to 1911. The Danish merchant financiers Joseph *Hambro and his son Carl Joachim *Hambro settled in London in 1832 and founded Hambro’s Bank there. A leading Danish banker was Isaac *Glückstadt , who managed the Landsmans-Bank at Copenhagen from 1872 until his death in 1910; he was succeeded by his son Emil. A. Levy Martin was finance minister in 1870 and from 1873 till 1897 director of the Copenhagen Handelsbank. From 1913 until his death in 1923, Markus Rubin was director of the Danish Notenbank. In Holland the firm of Lissa and Kann was established in 1805. Another Dutch firm of the same era was Wertheimer and Gompertz, later known as the Bankassociatie. In 1859 the firm of Lippman, Rosenthal and Company was established as a subsidiary of the International Bank of Luxembourg. Its international activities were widespread, especially through Netherlands state loans. The bank of Elzbacher in Amsterdam later merged with the Amsterdamsche Bank. In Rotterdam Rothschild was represented by Moses Ezechiels en Zonen (liquidated in 1888). The bank of Benjamin Marx (established in 1869), later Marx and Company, was in existence until 1922. In Belgium Jacques Errera, Joseph Oppenheim, and Isaac Stern, all from Brussels, and the brothers Sulzbach and J. May from Frankfurt participated in the foundation of the Banque de Bruxelles in 1871. Private banks were those of F.M. Philippson and Company, the Societé Henri Lambert and Cassel and Company. Moving from Alsace to Switzerland in 1812, Isaac Dreyfus established a bank in Basle; after 1849 the firm was known as Isaac Dreyfus Soehne. It participated in the foundation of the Basler Handelsbank as well as the Basler Bankverein. The Hitler regime spelled the end of Jewish banking in the greater part of Europe; all Jewish banks in Germany were liquidated or transferred to a non-Jewish company (Solomon Oppenheim Jr. and Company in Cologne, for example, was changed into the firm of Pferdmenges and Company).
THE UNITED STATES
Already in early colonial times individual Jews were active in America as money brokers, such as Asser *Levy , who functioned in New York City during the second half of the 17th century. Often such figures were helped by their extensive family or fellow-Jewish contacts overseas, as was the case with David *Franks , who was instrumental in raising money for the British army during the French and Indian War with the aid of his brother Moses, a London financier. The best known Jewish financier of the times was the legendary patriot Haym *Salomon , an immigrant from Poland who succeeded under extremely trying conditions in raising large amounts of desperately needed cash for the American Revolution by negotiating bills of exchange with France and the Netherlands. Yet another figure who helped finance the war for American independence was Isaac *Moses , later among the founders of the Bank of New York. It was not until the middle of the 19th century, however, with the arrival in America of a large German-Jewish immigration, that Jewish banking houses on the European model came to exist in the United States. Some of the founders of these firms, like Philip and Gustav *Speyer of Speyer & Co., went to the United States as American representatives of already established European concerns; others, like August *Belmont , crossed the Atlantic with a degree of previously acquired banking experience; still others, like the *Lehman brothers, Meyer and Emanuel, were essentially self-made men. Among other Jewish banking houses started by immigrants from Germany that developed into financial powers during the years 1840–1880 were Kuhn, Loeb Co., Lazard Frères, J.W. Seligman Co., Goldman, Sachs & Co., and Ladenburg, Thalman & Co. All of these firms functioned essentially as investment bankers – the more established field of commercial banking offered relatively few opportunities to the German-Jewish immigrant – a capacity in which they helped to finance large numbers of American utilities and corporations whose rapid growth throughout the latter half of the 19th century created an insatiable demand for capital. To raise such funds these Jewish houses not only freely utilized their widespread European connections, particularly in France, England, and Germany, but created a chain of interlocking associations and directorates among themselves which enabled them quickly to mobilize sums many times larger than their individual holdings and to compete successfully with gentile firms several times their size. Not only was it common for the children and relatives of a given firm to marry each other, but marital alliances frequently occurred as well among different Jewish banking families, as was the case with the *Loebs , the *Kuhns , the *Schiffs , and the *Warburgs . Frequently too the children of such families married into families of large German-Jewish companies in a variety of other fields and the latter would then proceed to raise capital through the banking houses which they had joined. Socially, the result of such commercial and kinship ties was the creation of a German-Jewish banking and business aristocracy based in New York City whose descendants continued for over a century to play a dominant role in the financial, cultural, and political life of the American Jewish community, and to a lesser extent, of the nation at large. The contribution of such Jewish banking houses to the process of capital formation in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century was considerable by any standard. Several of them, such as Speyer & Co., August Belmont & Co., and J. & W. Seligman, raised large sums for the federal government both during and after the Civil War (the Jewish house of Erlanger Co., on the other hand, obtained sizeable loans for the Confederacy); others, such as Kuhn, Loeb, were particularly active in the westward expansion of the railroads. In the late 19th century Seligman Co. alone was capitalized at an estimated $10,000,000, while during the Russo-Japanese War of 1905 Jacob *Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb was able on short notice to float a bond issue of $200,000,000 on behalf of the Japanese government. Although the total assets of such Jewish firms were nevertheless small when compared to those of the American banking system as a whole, their clannishness and ability to coordinate their actions made them the focus of antisemitic agitation from the 1890s on, when caricatures of ruthless Jewish oligarchs at the head of an international Jewish money conspiracy began to abound in the ranks of the Populist movement. In reality, however, the fiscal policies of the German-Jewish firms tended to be highly conservative and their owners exercised their fortunes with an unusual degree of social as well as fiscal responsibility. Although a number of the great 19th-century Jewish banking houses such as Lazard Frères and Kuhn, Loeb have survived into the present, none has continued as a family or even exclusively Jewish concern and even the most prosperous of them have lost their former importance as a result of the steady trend in the American financial market toward the predominance of ever larger and more impersonal corporations. At the same time, the general field of commercial banking in the United States has remained relatively closed to Jewish participation despite heavy Jewish involvement in such related fields as stock brokerage, investment analysis, and corporate management. A study undertaken by B’nai B’rith in 1939 revealed that out of 93,000 bankers in the United States only 0.6% were Jewish, and that even in New York City Jews formed only 6% of banking executives as compared to 28% of the general population. Similar statistics for a later period are unavailable, but reports of discrimination against Jews in major banks throughout the country persist and in 1968 the American Jewish Committee publicly filed a complaint before the Human Rights Commission of New York City charging the banking system with job bias against Jews.
In the latter years of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st, the banking industry consolidated, and some old-line “Jewish” firms were bought or incorporated into others as buyouts and mergers changed the landscape. As Jews assimilated into American life, many advanced in the workplace less along ethnic lines and more along lines of achievement. To be sure, there were many Jews in leadership positions in prominent financial institutions: Felix *Rohatyn at Lazard Frères, Bruce *Wasserstein at several large firms, Sanford *Weill at Citibank, and others, but their financial success was largely attributed to their business acumen rather than to their religious or ethnic background.
George Soros, a Hungarian immigrant, became one of the most successful investors and later spread his wealth to nonprofit organizations and to political causes. Michael Steinhardt and others made their mark in hedge funds or as independent venture capitalists, accumulating great wealth but also making large philanthropic contributions. Carl *Icahn and Irwin L. *Jacobs developed reputations as corporate raiders. Abby Joseph Cohen was the leading investment strategist for Goldman Sachs, and Henry Kaufman, a well-known economist, offered advice about the stock market that was followed by many. In addition, on Wall Street, such firms as Schwab & Co., headed by Charles *Schwab, achieved great success as a low-price stock-market firm.
Some investors – Ivan *Boesky , Michael *Milken , Marc *Rich – became infamous for their questionable financial activities, but whether their religion played a role is highly unlikely. They were perceived as corrupt financial figures, not corrupt Jewish financial figures.
In the last years of the 20th century, a number of Jews had important positions in the nation’s economic community. Alan *Greenspan , a Republican, headed the Federal Reserve System for almost 20 years and became a powerful force in Washington. During the Clinton administration, Jewish economists, including Robert *Rubin , the Treasury secretary, and Lawrence *Sommers, his successor and later president of Harvard University, held Cabinet-level positions, and James D. *Wolfensohn headed the World Bank from 1995 to 2005. His successor, chosen by President George W. Bush, was Paul D. Wolfowitz, a veteran foreign policy and defense official in Republican administrations.
[Stewart Kampel (2nd ed.)]
Assessment of the Role of Jewish Bankers
As shown above, Jewish activity, in particular in the late Middle Ages and in the 18th and 19th centuries, often played an important, sometimes a central, constructive role in the economy and social life of various countries, sometimes even internationally. However, banking always remained a subsidiary Jewish economic activity. Frequently, when Jews appeared to command large assets, they gave this impression because they mostly owned mobile property. The wealthy Jews always formed a small group, particularly in comparison with the wealthy nobles or Christian merchants. It was really only in the 19th century that Jewish financiers achieved remarkable wealth, largely resulting from the activities of some European courts in consequence of the upheavals brought about by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. With the growth of joint stock banks and of central banks in the middle of the 19th century the field of private banking became limited. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Jewish influence in finance and banking had reached its zenith; afterward it declined at an accelerating rate.
Baron, Social2, index S.V. Banking and bankers; L. Herzfeld, Handelsgeschichte der Juden des Alterthums (18942); V. Tcherikover, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews (1959), 333–43. MIDDLE AGES–18th CENTURY: I. Schipper, Toledot ha-Kalkalah ha-Yehudit, 2 vols. (1935–36); W. Sombart, Jews and Modern Capitalism (1951); J. Guttmann, Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben (1913), review of W. Sombart; M. Hoffmann, Geldhandel der deutschen Juden waehrend des Mittelalters (1910); G. Caro, Sozial-und Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Juden, 2 vols. (1908–20), index S.V. Bankiers; H. Waetjen, Das Judentum und die Anfaenge der modernen Kolonisation (1914); H. Schnee, Hoffinanz und der Moderne Staat, 6 vols. (1953–67); S.D. Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, 1 (1967); L. Poliakov, Les Banchieri juifs et le Saint-Siège du XIIIè au XVIIè siècle (1965). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: WOMEN BANKERS. J.R. Baskin, “Jewish Women in the Middle Ages,” in: J.R. Baskin (ed.), Jewish Women in Historical Perspective (19982), 101–27; A. Grossman, Pious and Rebellious: Jewish Women in Medieval Europe (2004), 114–22, 147–53, 259–62; D. Hertz, “The Despised Queen of Berlin Jewry, or the Life and Times of Esther Liebmann,” in: V.B. Mann and R.I. Cohen (eds.), From Court Jews to the Rothschilds. Art, Patronage and Power 1600–1800 (1996), 67–77; W.C. Jordan, “Women and Credit in the Middle Ages,” in: Journal of European Economic History 17/1 (1988), 33–62; M. Keil. “She Supplied Provisions for her Household: Jewish Business Women in Late Medieval Ashkenaz,” in: The Jews of Europe in the Middle Ages. Ed. Historisches Museum der Pfalz Speyer (2004), 83–89; idem, “Public Roles of Jewish Women in Fourteenth and Fifteenth-Centuries Ashkenaz: Business, Community, and Ritual,” in: C. Cluse (ed.). The Jews of Europe in the Middle Ages (Tenth to Fifteenth Centuries), Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Speyer, October 20–25, 2002 (Cultural Encounters in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, 4) (2004), 317–30; C. Tallan. “Medieval Jewish Widows: Their Control of Resources,” in: Jewish History, 5 (1991), 63–74. 19th AND 20th CENTURIES: P. Emden, Money Powers of Europe… (1938); M. Lévy-Leboyer, Les banques européennes… (1964); J. Wechsberg, Merchant Bankers (1966); J. Riesser, German Great Banks (19113); A. Marcus, Die Wirtschaftliche Krise der deutschen Juden (1931); idem, in: YIVOA, 7 (1952), 175–203; Goldberg, in: Yivo Ekonomishe Shriftn, 2 (1932), 56–92; S. Birmingham, Our Crowd (1967); K. Zielenziger, Juden in der deutschen Wirtschaft (1930); B.E. Supple, in: Business History Review, 31 no. 2 (1957); E.O. Eisenberg, in: The National Jewish Monthly, 53 no. 6 (Feb., 1939); Milano, in: JQR, 30 (1939/40), 149–86; Giuseppi, in: JHSEM, 6 (1962), 143–74; G. Myers, History of the Great American Fortunes (1910, 19372); D.S. Landes, Bankers and Pashas… in Egypt (1958); K. Grunwald, Hamizraḥ ha-Ḥadash: Ha-Banka’im ha-Yehudim be-Iraq, 1 (1960), 160–5; H.-D. Kircholtes, Juedische Privatbanken in Frankfurt/M. (1969). See also bibliographies in articles on individual countries and families.
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.
Jews in spite of families attempting to consolidate and keep their ethnicity pure are as racially diverse as any grouping of people. Therefore to indiscriminately attack Jews, historically known a Hebrews, is an attack on all humans. Conversely a subset of Jews have been nearly exclusively monopolistic-ally historically in private ownership and control of the people’s exchange of goods and services of raw natural resources through this system which is now a human cultural necessity that allows us a wealthy more comfortable lifestyle even in spite of the lions share of wealth and power being concentrated in a few obscenely rich hands. This is touchy ground and there will be some that will raise accusations of anti-Semitism in spite of my using Jewish sources of historical banking information, By defining the history of Jews and banking but it is time to separate Judaism and capitalism into two separate entities that have historically over lapped, yes this activity of banking money and currency helped to raise the material quality of life but it also created huge economic inequality. So considering the whole of humanity money as most human phenomenon has a combination of good and bad outcomes.
WWII the Unholy Alliance
United States and world bankers and Wall Street stock market corporate investors, some of them Jewish helped Hitler’s rise, I believe they figured he would be able to take on the communists which they hated. Then when all hell broke loose, just like in nature the weakest were slaughtered and the bankers who were the real culprits, not only escaped the Holocaust but profited from the war and were able to use their wealth to finance the rise of Israel. The Knesset of Israel was built with a 6 million lira donation by James “Jimmy” de Rothschild, son of Lord Edmond James de Rothschild. Jimmy, so while many Jews claim they were kicked out of banking during WWII, somehow Rothschild had enough money to finance Israel’s government which came to power in 1948 and the Knesset building first stone was laid in 1958 and the building was finished in 1966. https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Rothschilds-gift-to-Israel-turns-50-Happy-birthday-Knesset-464372
The mandate, the traditional powers of a government have a hard time raising money and an easier or more important function of spending money to maintain order within the said nation and protect against defend against invasion and international threats. When a group of people are proud and boisterous over some perceived achievement of that group, such communications are often the best evidence of that groups bias and wrongdoing to other groups of people and natural rights.
Connection to banking has benefited some Jews and allowed them to have an advantage in academia and government. You can see by suicides, drug use and other statistics and human activities that the Jewish ethnicity or religious group is not naturally that much more talented or stable than other ethnicity, they just have more opportunities, the money connection is very suspect to the loosely defined group’s success compared to other racial, ethnic and religious groups.
What are the odds of one ethnic religious group to be so much smarter as to be 2% of the population and occupy over 10% of the undergraduate student seats at all ivy league prestigious universities? https://www.hillel.org/about/news-views/news-views—blog/news-and-views/2018/03/15/2017-top-60-schools-by-jewish-population , http://www.reformjudaism.org/sites/default/files/Col_TopCharts_f14_F_spreads.pdf , and now the percentage of Jewish United States population: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2018/02/23/measuring-the-size-of-the-u-s-jewish-population-comes-down-to-identity/ , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Jews , As of 2019, at about 7.1 million, the population is 2% of the national total https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_the_United_States
In 1933, Labour Zionism signed the Transfer “Ha’avara” Agreement with the Nazis, breaking the international boycott against the regime: Nazi Germany would compensate German Jews who emigrate to Palestine for their lost property by exporting German goods to the Zionists in the country thus breaking the boycott. Between 1933 and 1939, 60 percent of all capital invested in Jewish Palestine came from German Jewish money through the Transfer Agreement. Thus, Nazism was a boon to Zionism throughout the 1930s.
In 1935, the German Zionist branch was the only political force that supported the Nazi Nuremberg Laws in the country, and was the only party still allowed to publish its own newspaper the Rundschau until after Kristallnacht in 1938. Nazi officials would visit Palestine as guests of the Zionists in 1934 and in 1937. In the latter year, it was none other than Adolf Eichmann and Herbert Hagen who arrived in the country. The two were taken by the Zionist envoy Feivel Polkes to Mount Carmel to visit a Jewish colonial-settlement. https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/12/201212249122912381.html
Although the following list could be placed in the following chapter, The History of Banking in the United States, this list showing the chairman and Chairwomen of the Federal Reserve from it’s dubious beginnings with the 1913 Federal Reserve Act to the present day of January 2020. The list shows their admitted and well known Jewish affiliation up to that of Janet Yellen and the article says the FED chairman has been Jewish
List of Chairmen of the Federal Reserve (All shown)
1) JEWISH-Charles S. Hamlin (August 10, 1914 — August 10, 1916)
2) William P. G. Harding (August 10, 1916 – August 9, 1922)
3) Daniel R. Crissinger (May 1, 1923 – September 15, 1927)
4) Roy A. Young (October 4, 1927 – August 31, 1930)
5) JEWISH-Eugene I. Meyer (September 16, 1930 – May 10, 1933)
6) JEWISH-Eugene R. Black (May 19, 1933 – August 15, 1934)
7) Marriner S. Eccles 1 (November 15, 1934 – February 3, 1948)
8) Thomas B. McCabe (April 15, 1948 -April 2, 1951)
9) William McChesney Martin, Jr. (April 2, 1951 – February 1, 1970)
10) JEWISH-Arthur F. Burns (February 1, 1970 – January 31, 1978)
11) G. William Miller (March 8, 1978 – August 6, 1979)
12) JEWISH-Paul A. Volcker (August 6, 1979 – August 11, 1987)
13) JEWISH-Alan Greenspan 2 (August 11, 1987 – January 31, 2006)
14) JEWISH-Ben Shalom Bernanke (February 1, 2006 – Present)
15) JEWISH-Janet Yellen ( February 3, 2014 – February 3, 2018)
16) Jerome Powell (Febuary 5, 2018)
Years ago I began to study how such a person we are lead to believe is among the most evil people in all of history such as Adolf Hitler come to power? Hitler was wounded in WWI. Hitler also was a painter and desired to be a professional artist. He wrote Mein Kampf while in jail for treason. He was said to be a charismatic speaker, none of this quite explains his rise to power. The way to study such power inevitably leads to a search method called follow the money. According to the following Wikipedia article titled Adolph Hitler, he gained the support of wealthy industrialists, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler There is also plenty of information about Hitler’s financiers in a video titled Banking with Hitler https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x537w3l So the winners of wars write the history is a saying that must be considered here to arrive at a more complete account of history. Are we to believe that all Jews were expelled from the banking and investment world and these Jews experienced the Holocaust yet by 1947 or so poor victim James de Rothschild had enough money to will the building of the Knesset as a gift to the State of Israel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knesset So there appears to be some sort of historical discourse here. Is it possible that a small portion of Jewish bankers profited off of World War II and the Holocaust of poor working class Jews?
Here is an article about the relationship between Zionist Jews and the Third Reich that has a list of sources and is highly contested by certain Jews as being anti-Semitic:
INSTITUTE FOR HISTORICAL REVIEW (http://www.ihr.org/ )
Zionism and the Third Reich
by Mark Weber
Early in 1935, a passenger ship bound for Haifa in Palestine left the German port of Bremerhaven. Its stern bore the Hebrew letters for its name, “Tel Aviv,” while a swastika banner fluttered from the mast. And although the ship was Zionist-owned, its captain was a National Socialist Party member. Many years later a traveler aboard the ship recalled this symbolic combination as a “metaphysical absurdity.”/1 Absurd or not, this is but one vignette from a little-known chapter of history: The wide-ranging collaboration between Zionism and Hitler’s Third Reich.
Over the years, people in many different countries have wrestled with the “Jewish question”: that is, what is the proper role of Jews in non-Jewish society? During the 1930s, Jewish Zionists and German National Socialists shared similar views on how to deal with this perplexing issue. They agreed that Jews and Germans were distinctly different nationalities, and that Jews did not belong in Germany. Jews living in the Reich were therefore to be regarded not as “Germans of the Jewish faith,” but rather as members of a separate national community. Zionism (Jewish nationalism) also implied an obligation by Zionist Jews to resettle in Palestine, the “Jewish homeland.” They could hardly regard themselves as sincere Zionists and simultaneously claim equal rights in Germany or any other “foreign” country.
Theodor Herzl (1860-1904), the founder of modern Zionism, maintained that anti-Semitism is not an aberration, but a natural and completely understandable response by non-Jews to alien Jewish behavior and attitudes. The only solution, he argued, is for Jews to recognize reality and live in a separate state of their own. “The Jewish question exists wherever Jews live in noticeable numbers,” he wrote in his most influential work, The Jewish State. “Where it does not exist, it is brought in by arriving Jews … I believe I understand anti-Semitism, which is a very complex phenomenon. I consider this development as a Jew, without hate or fear.” The Jewish question, he maintained, is not social or religious. “It is a national question. To solve it we must, above all, make it an international political issue …” Regardless of their citizenship, Herzl insisted, Jews constitute not merely a religious community, but a nationality, a people, a Volk. /2 Zionism, wrote Herzl, offered the world a welcome “final solution of the Jewish question.”/3
Six months after Hitler came to power, the Zionist Federation of Germany (by far the largest Zionist group in the country) submitted a detailed memorandum to the new government that reviewed German-Jewish relations and formally offered Zionist support in “solving” the vexing “Jewish question.” The first step, it suggested, had to be a frank recognition of fundamental national differences: /4
Zionism has no illusions about the difficulty of the Jewish condition, which consists above all in an abnormal occupational pattern and in the fault of an intellectual and moral posture not rooted in one’s own tradition. Zionism recognized decades ago that as a result of the assimilationist trend, symptoms of deterioration were bound to appear …
Zionism believes that the rebirth of the national life of a people, which is now occurring in Germany through the emphasis on its Christian and national character, must also come about in the Jewish national group. For the Jewish people, too, national origin, religion, common destiny and a sense of its uniqueness must be of decisive importance in the shaping of its existence. This means that the egotistical individualism of the liberal era must be overcome and replaced with a sense of community and collective responsibility …
We believe it is precisely the new [National Socialist] Germany that can, through bold resoluteness in the handling of the Jewish question, take a decisive step toward overcoming a problem which, in truth, will have to be dealt with by most European peoples …
Our acknowledgment of Jewish nationality provides for a clear and sincere relationship to the German people and its national and racial realities. Precisely because we do not wish to falsify these fundamentals, because we, too, are against mixed marriage and are for maintaining the purity of the Jewish group and reject any trespasses in the cultural domain, we — having been brought up in the German language and German culture — can show an interest in the works and values of German culture with admiration and internal sympathy …
For its practical aims, Zionism hopes to be able to win the collaboration of even a government fundamentally hostile to Jews, because in dealing with the Jewish question not sentimentalities are involved but a real problem whose solution interests all peoples and at the present moment especially the German people …
Boycott propaganda — such as is currently being carried on against Germany in many ways — is in essence un-Zionist, because Zionism wants not to do battle but to convince and to build …
We are not blind to the fact that a Jewish question exists and will continue to exist. From the abnormal situation of the Jews severe disadvantages result for them, but also scarcely tolerable conditions for other peoples.
The Federation’s paper, the Jüdische Rundschau (“Jewish Review”), proclaimed the same message: “Zionism recognizes the existence of a Jewish problem and desires a far-reaching and constructive solution. For this purpose Zionism wishes to obtain the assistance of all peoples, whether pro- or anti-Jewish, because, in its view, we are dealing here with a concrete rather than a sentimental problem, the solution of which all peoples are interested.”/5 A young Berlin rabbi, Joachim Prinz, who later settled in the United States and became head of the American Jewish Congress, wrote in his 1934 book, Wir Juden (“We Jews”), that the National Socialist revolution in Germany meant “Jewry for the Jews.” He explained: “No subterfuge can save us now. In place of assimilation we desire a new concept: recognition of the Jewish nation and Jewish race.” /6
On this basis of their similar ideologies about ethnicity and nationhood, National Socialists and Zionists worked together for what each group believed was in its own national interest. As a result, the Hitler government vigorously supported Zionism and Jewish emigration to Palestine from 1933 until 1940-1941, when the Second World War prevented extensive collaboration.
Even as the Third Reich became more entrenched, many German Jews, probably a majority, continued to regard themselves, often with considerable pride, as Germans first. Few were enthusiastic about pulling up roots to begin a new life in far-away Palestine. Nevertheless, more and more German Jews turned to Zionism during this period. Until late 1938, the Zionist movement flourished in Germany under Hitler. The circulation of the Zionist Federation’s bi-weekly Jüdische Rundschau grew enormously. Numerous Zionist books were published. “Zionist work was in full swing” in Germany during those years, the Encyclopaedia Judaica notes. A Zionist convention held in Berlin in 1936 reflected “in its composition the vigorous party life of German Zionists.”/7
The SS was particularly enthusiastic in its support for Zionism. An internal June 1934 SS position paper urged active and wide-ranging support for Zionism by the government and the Party as the best way to encourage emigration of Germany’s Jews to Palestine. This would require increased Jewish self-awareness. Jewish schools, Jewish sports leagues, Jewish cultural organizations — in short, everything that would encourage this new consciousness and self-awareness – should be promoted, the paper recommended. /8
SS officer Leopold von Mildenstein and Zionist Federation official Kurt Tuchler toured Palestine together for six months to assess Zionist development there. Based on his firsthand observations, von Mildenstein wrote a series of twelve illustrated articles for the important Berlin daily Der Angriff that appeared in late 1934 under the heading “A Nazi Travels to Palestine.” The series expressed great admiration for the pioneering spirit and achievements of the Jewish settlers. Zionist self-development, von Mildenstein wrote, had produced a new kind of Jew. He praised Zionism as a great benefit for both the Jewish people and the entire world. A Jewish homeland in Palestine, he wrote in his concluding article, “pointed the way to curing a centuries-long wound on the body of the world: the Jewish question.” Der Angriff issued a special medal, with a Swastika on one side and a Star of David on the other, to commemorate the joint SS-Zionist visit. A few months after the articles appeared, von Mildenstein was promoted to head the Jewish affairs department of the SS security service in order to support Zionist migration and development more effectively. /9
The official SS newspaper, Das Schwarze Korps, proclaimed its support for Zionism in a May 1935 front-page editorial: “The time may not be too far off when Palestine will again be able to receive its sons who have been lost to it for more than a thousand years. Our good wishes, together with official goodwill, go with them.”/10 Four months later, a similar article appeared in the SS paper: /11
The recognition of Jewry as a racial community based on blood and not on religion leads the German government to guarantee without reservation the racial separateness of this community. The government finds itself in complete agreement with the great spiritual movement within Jewry, the so-called Zionism, with its recognition of the solidarity of Jewry around the world and its rejection of all assimilationist notions. On this basis, Germany undertakes measures that will surely play a significant role in the future in the handling of the Jewish problem around the world.
A leading German shipping line began direct passenger liner service from Hamburg to Haifa, Palestine, in October 1933 providing “strictly kosher food on its ships, under the supervision of the Hamburg rabbinate.” /12
With official backing, Zionists worked tirelessly to “reeducate” Germany’s Jews. As American historian Francis Nicosia put it in his 1985 survey, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question: “Zionists were encouraged to take their message to the Jewish community, to collect money, to show films on Palestine and generally to educate German Jews about Palestine. There was considerable pressure to teach Jews in Germany to cease identifying themselves as Germans and to awaken a new Jewish national identity in them.” /13
In an interview after the war, the former head of the Zionist Federation of Germany, Dr. Hans Friedenthal, summed up the situation: “The Gestapo did everything in those days to promote emigration, particularly to Palestine. We often received their help when we required anything from other authorities regarding preparations for emigration.” /14
At the September 1935 National Socialist Party Congress, the Reichstag adopted the so-called “Nuremberg laws” that prohibited marriages and sexual relations between Jews and Germans and, in effect, proclaimed the Jews an alien minority nationality. A few days later the Zionist Jüdische Rundschau editorially welcomed the new measures: /15
Germany … is meeting the demands of the World Zionist Congress when it declares the Jews now living in Germany to be a national minority. Once the Jews have been stamped a national minority it is again possible to establish normal relations between the German nation and Jewry. The new laws give the Jewish minority in Germany its own cultural life, its own national life. In future it will be able to shape its own schools, its own theatre, and its own sports associations. In short, it can create its own future in all aspects of national life …
Germany has given the Jewish minority the opportunity to live for itself, and is offering state protection for this separate life of the Jewish minority: Jewry’s process of growth into a nation will thereby be encouraged and a contribution will be made to the establishment of more tolerable relations between the two nations.
Georg Kareski, the head of both the “Revisionist” Zionist State Organization and the Jewish Cultural League, and former head of the Berlin Jewish Community, declared in an interview with the Berlin daily Der Angriff at the end of 1935: /16
For many years I have regarded a complete separation of the cultural affairs of the two peoples [Jews and Germans] as a pre-condition for living together without conflict… I have long supported such a separation, provided it is founded on respect for the alien nationality. The Nuremberg Laws … seem to me, apart from their legal provisions, to conform entirely with this desire for a separate life based on mutual respect… This interruption of the process of dissolution in many Jewish communities, which had been promoted through mixed marriages, is therefore, from a Jewish point of view, entirely welcome.
Zionist leaders in other countries echoed these views. Stephen S. Wise, president of the American Jewish Congress and the World Jewish Congress, told a New York rally in June 1938: “I am not an American citizen of the Jewish faith, I am a Jew… Hitler was right in one thing. He calls the Jewish people a race and we are a race.” /17
The Interior Ministry’s Jewish affairs specialist, Dr. Bernhard Lösener, expressed support for Zionism in an article that appeared in a November 1935 issue of the official Reichsverwaltungsblatt: /18
If the Jews already had their own state in which the majority of them were settled, then the Jewish question could be regarded as completely resolved today, also for the Jews themselves. The least amount of opposition to the ideas underlying the Nuremberg Laws have been shown by the Zionists, because they realize at once that these laws represent the only correct solution for the Jewish people as well. For each nation must have its own state as the outward expression of its particular nationhood.
In cooperation with the German authorities, Zionist groups organized a network of some forty camps and agricultural centers throughout Germany where prospective settlers were trained for their new lives in Palestine. Although the Nuremberg Laws forbid Jews from displaying the German flag, Jews were specifically guaranteed the right to display the blue and white Jewish national banner. The flag that would one day be adopted by Israel was flown at the Zionist camps and centers in Hitler’s Germany. /19
Himmler’s security service cooperated with the Haganah, the Zionist underground military organization in Palestine. The SS agency paid Haganah official Feivel Polkes for information about the situation in Palestine and for help in directing Jewish emigration to that country. Meanwhile, the Haganah was kept well informed about German plans by a spy it managed to plant in the Berlin headquarters of the SS. /20 Haganah-SS collaboration even included secret deliveries of German weapons to Jewish settlers for use in clashes with Palestinian Arabs. /21
In the aftermath of the November 1938 “Kristallnacht” outburst of violence and destruction, the SS quickly helped the Zionist organization to get back on its feet and continue its work in Germany, although now under more restricted supervision. /22
German support for Zionism was not unlimited. Government and Party officials were very mindful of the continuing campaign by powerful Jewish communities in the United States, Britain and other countries to mobilize “their” governments and fellow citizens against Germany. As long as world Jewry remained implacably hostile toward National Socialist Germany, and as long as the great majority of Jews around the world showed little eagerness to resettle in the Zionist “promised land,” a sovereign Jewish state in Palestine would not really “solve” the international Jewish question. Instead, German officials reasoned, it would immeasurably strengthen this dangerous anti-German campaign. German backing for Zionism was therefore limited to support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine under British control, not a sovereign Jewish state. /23
A Jewish state in Palestine, the Foreign Minister informed diplomats in June 1937, would not be in Germany’s interest because it would not be able to absorb all Jews around the world, but would only serve as an additional power base for international Jewry, in much the same way as Moscow served as a base for international Communism. /24 Reflecting something of a shift in official policy, the German press expressed much greater sympathy in 1937 for Palestinian Arab resistance to Zionist ambitions, at a time when tension and conflict between Jews and Arabs in Palestine was sharply increasing. /25
A Foreign Office circular bulletin of June 22, 1937, cautioned that in spite of support for Jewish settlement in Palestine, “it would nevertheless be a mistake to assume that Germany supports the formation of a state structure in Palestine under some form of Jewish control. In view of the anti-German agitation of international Jewry, Germany cannot agree that the formation of a Palestine Jewish state would help the peaceful development of the nations of the world.”/26 “The proclamation of a Jewish state or a Jewish-administrated Palestine,” warned an internal memorandum by the Jewish affairs section of the SS, “would create for Germany a new enemy, one that would have a deep influence on developments in the Near East.” Another SS agency predicted that a Jewish state “would work to bring special minority protection to Jews in every country, therefore giving legal protection to the exploitation activity of world Jewry.”/27 In January 1939, Hitler’s new Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, likewise warned in another circular bulletin that “Germany must regard the formation of a Jewish state as dangerous” because it “would bring an international increase in power to world Jewry.” /28
Hitler himself personally reviewed this entire issue in early 1938 and, in spite of his long-standing skepticism of Zionist ambitions and misgivings that his policies might contribute to the formation of a Jewish state, decided to support Jewish migration to Palestine even more vigorously. The prospect of ridding Germany of its Jews, he concluded, outweighed the possible dangers. /29
Meanwhile, the British government imposed ever more drastic restrictions on Jewish immigration into Palestine in 1937, 1938 and 1939. In response, the SS security service concluded a secret alliance with the clandestine Zionist agency Mossad le-Aliya Bet to smuggle Jews illegally into Palestine. As a result of this intensive collaboration, several convoys of ships succeeded in reaching Palestine past British gunboats. Jewish migration, both legal and illegal, from Germany (including Austria) to Palestine increased dramatically in 1938 and 1939. Another 10,000 Jews were scheduled to depart in October 1939, but the outbreak of war in September brought the effort to an end. All the same, German authorities continued to promote indirect Jewish emigration to Palestine during 1940 and 1941. /30 Even as late as March 1942, at least one officially authorized Zionist “kibbutz” training camp for potential emigrants continued to operate in Hitler’s Germany. /31
The Transfer Agreement
The centerpiece of German-Zionist cooperation during the Hitler era was the Transfer Agreement, a pact that enabled tens of thousands of German Jews to migrate to Palestine with their wealth. The Agreement, also known as the Haavara (Hebrew for “transfer”), was concluded in August 1933 following talks between German officials and Chaim Arlosoroff, Political Secretary of the Jewish Agency, the Palestine center of the World Zionist Organization. /32
Through this unusual arrangement, each Jew bound for Palestine deposited money in a special account in Germany. The money was used to purchase German-made agricultural tools, building materials, pumps, fertilizer, and so forth, which were exported to Palestine and sold there by the Jewish-owned Haavara company in Tel-Aviv. Money from the sales was given to the Jewish emigrant upon his arrival in Palestine in an amount corresponding to his deposit in Germany. German goods poured into Palestine through the Haavara, which was supplemented a short time later with a barter agreement by which Palestine oranges were exchanged for German timber, automobiles, agricultural machinery, and other goods. The Agreement thus served the Zionist aim of bringing Jewish settlers and development capital to Palestine, while simultaneously serving the German goal of freeing the country of an unwanted alien group.
Delegates at the 1933 Zionist Congress in Prague vigorously debated the merits of the Agreement. Some feared that the pact would undermine the international Jewish economic boycott against Germany. But Zionist officials reassured the Congress. Sam Cohen, a key figure behind the Haavara arrangement, stressed that the Agreement was not economically advantageous to Germany. Arthur Ruppin, a Zionist Organization emigration specialist who had helped negotiate the pact, pointed out that “the Transfer Agreement in no way interfered with the boycott movement, since no new currency will flow into Germany as a result of the agreement…” /33 The 1935 Zionist Congress, meeting in Switzerland, overwhelmingly endorsed the pact. In 1936, the Jewish Agency (the Zionist “shadow government” in Palestine) took over direct control of the Ha’avara, which remained in effect until the Second World War forced its abandonment.
Some German officials opposed the arrangement. Germany’s Consul General in Jerusalem, Hans Döhle, for example, sharply criticized the Agreement on several occasions during 1937. He pointed out that it cost Germany the foreign exchange that the products exported to Palestine through the pact would bring if sold elsewhere. The Haavara monopoly sale of German goods to Palestine through a Jewish agency naturally angered German businessmen and Arabs there. Official German support for Zionism could lead to a loss of German markets throughout the Arab world. The British government also resented the arrangement. /34 A June 1937 German Foreign Office internal bulletin referred to the “foreign exchange sacrifices” that resulted from the Haavara. 3/5
A December 1937 internal memorandum by the German Interior Ministry reviewed the impact of the Transfer Agreement: “There is no doubt that the Haavara arrangement has contributed most significantly to the very rapid development of Palestine since 1933. The Agreement provided not only the largest source of money (from Germany!), but also the most intelligent group of immigrants, and finally it brought to the country the machines and industrial products essential for development.” The main advantage of the pact, the memo reported, was the emigration of large numbers of Jews to Palestine, the most desirable target country as far as Germany was concerned. But the paper also noted the important drawbacks pointed out by Consul Döhle and others. The Interior Minister, it went on, had concluded that the disadvantages of the agreement now outweighed the advantages and that, therefore, it should be terminated. /36
Only one man could resolve the controversy. Hitler personally reviewed the policy in July and September 1937, and again in January 1938, and each time decided to maintain the Haavara arrangement. The goal of removing Jews from Germany, he concluded, justified the drawbacks. /37
The Reich Economics Ministry helped to organize another transfer company, the International Trade and Investment Agency, or Intria, through which Jews in foreign countries could help German Jews emigrate to Palestine. Almost $900,000 was eventually channeled through the Intria to German Jews in Palestine. /38 Other European countries eager to encourage Jewish emigration concluded agreements with the Zionists modeled after the Ha’avara. In 1937 Poland authorized the Halifin (Hebrew for “exchange”) transfer company. By late summer 1939, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary and Italy had signed similar arrangements. The outbreak of war in September 1939, however, prevented large-scale implementation of these agreements. /39
Achievements of Haavara
Between 1933 and 1941, some 60,000 German Jews emigrated to Palestine through the Ha’avara and other German-Zionist arrangements, or about ten percent of Germany’s 1933 Jewish population. (These German Jews made up about 15 percent of Palestine’s 1939 Jewish population.) Some Ha’avara emigrants transferred considerable personal wealth from Germany to Palestine. As Jewish historian Edwin Black has noted: “Many of these people, especially in the late 1930s, were allowed to transfer actual replicas of their homes and factories — indeed rough replicas of their very existence.”/40
The total amount transferred from Germany to Palestine through the Ha’avara between August 1933 and the end of 1939 was 8.1 million pounds or 139.57 million German marks (then equivalent to more than $40 million). This amount included 33.9 million German marks ($13.8 million) provided by the Reichsbank in connection with the Agreement. /41
Historian Black has estimated that an additional $70 million may have flowed into Palestine through corollary German commercial agreements and special international banking transactions. The German funds had a major impact on a country as underdeveloped as Palestine was in the 1930s, he pointed out. Several major industrial enterprises were built with the capital from Germany, including the Mekoroth waterworks and the Lodzia textile firm. The influx of Ha’avara goods and capital, concluded Black, “produced an economic explosion in Jewish Palestine” and was “an indispensable factor in the creation of the State of Israel.”/42
The Ha’avara agreement greatly contributed to Jewish development in Palestine and thus, indirectly, to the foundation of the Israeli state. A January 1939 German Foreign Office circular bulletin reported, with some misgiving, that “the transfer of Jewish property out of Germany [through the Ha’avara agreement] contributed to no small extent to the building of a Jewish state in Palestine.”/43
Former officials of the Ha’avara company in Palestine confirmed this view in a detailed study of the Transfer Agreement published in 1972: “The economic activity made possible by the influx German capital and the Haavara transfers to the private and public sectors were of greatest importance for the country’s development. Many new industries and commercial enterprises were established in Jewish Palestine, and numerous companies that are enormously important even today in the economy of the State of Israel owe their existence to the Haavara.”/44 Dr. Ludwig Pinner, a Ha’avara company official in Tel Aviv during the 1930s, later commented that the exceptionally competent Ha’avara immigrants “decisively contributed” to the economic, social, cultural and educational development of Palestine’s Jewish community. /45
The Transfer Agreement was the most far-reaching example of cooperation between Hitler’s Germany and international Zionism. Through this pact, Hitler’s Third Reich did more than any other government during the 1930s to support Jewish development in Palestine.
Zionists Offer a Military Alliance With Hitler
In early January 1941 a small but important Zionist organization submitted a formal proposal to German diplomats in Beirut for a military-political alliance with wartime Germany. The offer was made by the radical underground “Fighters for the Freedom of Israel,” better known as the Lehi or Stern Gang. Its leader, Avraham Stern, had recently broken with the radical nationalist “National Military Organization” (Irgun Zvai Leumi) over the group’s attitude toward Britain, which had effectively banned further Jewish settlement of Palestine. Stern regarded Britain as the main enemy of Zionism.
This remarkable Zionist proposal “for the solution of the Jewish question in Europe and the active participation of the NMO [Lehi] in the war on the side of Germany” is worth quoting at some length: /46
In their speeches and statements, the leading statesmen of National Socialist Germany have often emphasized that a New Order in Europe requires as a prerequisite a radical solution of the Jewish question by evacuation. (“Jew-free Europe”)
The evacuation of the Jewish masses from Europe is a precondition for solving the Jewish question. However, the only way this can be totally achieved is through settlement of these masses in the homeland of the Jewish people, Palestine, and by the establishment of a Jewish state in its historical boundaries.
The goal of the political activity and the years of struggle by the Israel Freedom Movement, the National Military Organization in Palestine (Irgun Zvai Leumi), is to solve the Jewish problem in this way and thus completely liberate the Jewish people forever.
The NMO, which is very familiar with the good will of the German Reich government and its officials towards Zionist activities within Germany and the Zionist emigration program, takes that view that:
1. Common interests can exist between a European New Order based on the German concept and the true national aspirations of the Jewish people as embodied by the NMO.
2. Cooperation is possible between the New Germany and a renewed, folkish-national Jewry [Hebräertum].
3. The establishment of the historical Jewish state on a national and totalitarian basis, and bound by treaty with the German Reich, would be in the interest of maintaining and strengthening the future German position of power in the Near East.
On the basis of these considerations, and upon the condition that the German Reich government recognize the national aspirations of the Israel Freedom Movement mentioned above, the NMO in Palestine offers to actively take part in the war on the side of Germany.
This offer by the NMO could include military, political and informational activity within Palestine and, after certain organizational measures, outside as well. Along with this the Jewish men of Europe would be militarily trained and organized in military units under the leadership and command of the NMO. They would take part in combat operations for the purpose of conquering Palestine, should such a front by formed.
The indirect participation of the Israel Freedom Movement in the New Order of Europe, already in the preparatory stage, combined with a positive-radical solution of the European Jewish problem on the basis of the national aspirations of the Jewish people mentioned above, would greatly strengthen the moral foundation of the New Order in the eyes of all humanity.
The cooperation of the Israel Freedom Movement would also be consistent with a recent speech by the German Reich Chancellor, in which Hitler stressed that he would utilize any combination and coalition in order to isolate and defeat England.
There is no record of any German response. Acceptance was very unlikely anyway because by this time German policy was decisively pro-Arab. /47 Remarkably, Stern’s group sought to conclude a pact with the Third Reich at a time when stories that Hitler was bent on exterminating Jews were already in wide circulation. Stern apparently either did not believe the stories or he was willing to collaborate with the mortal enemy of his people to help bring about a Jewish state. /48
An important Lehi member at the time the group made this offer was Yitzhak Shamir, who later served as Israel’s Foreign Minister and then, during much of the 1980s and until June 1992, as Prime Minister. As Lehi operations chief following Stern’s death in 1942, Shamir organized numerous acts of terror, including the November 1944 assassination of British Middle East Minister Lord Moyne and the September 1948 slaying of Swedish United Nations mediator Count Bernadotte. Years later, when Shamir was asked about the 1941 offer, he confirmed that he was aware of his organization’s proposed alliance with wartime Germany. /49
In spite of the basic hostility between the Hitler regime and international Jewry, for several years Jewish Zionist and German National Socialist interests coincided. In collaborating with the Zionists for a mutually desirable and humane solution to a complex problem, the Third Reich was willing to make foreign exchange sacrifices, impair relations with Britain and anger the Arabs. Indeed, during the 1930s no nation did more to substantively further Jewish-Zionist goals than Hitler’s Germany.
1. W. Martini, “Hebräisch unterm Hakenkreuz,” Die Welt (Hamburg), Jan. 10, 1975. Cited in: Klaus Polken, “The Secret Contacts: Zionism and Nazi Germany, 1933-1941,” Journal of Palestine Studies, Spring-Summer 1976, p. 65.
2. Quoted in: Ingrid Weckert, Feuerzeichen: Die “Reichskristallnacht” (Tübingen: Grabert, 1981), p. 212. See also: Th. Herzl, The Jewish State (New York: Herzl Press, 1970), pp. 33, 35, 36, and, Edwin Black, The Transfer Agreement (New York: Macmillan, 1984), p. 73.
3. Th. Herzl, “Der Kongress,” Welt, June 4, 1897. Reprinted in: Theodor Herzls zionistische Schriften (Leon Kellner, ed.), erster Teil, Berlin: Jüdischer Verlag, 1920, p. 190 (and p. 139).
4. Memo of June 21, 1933, in: L. Dawidowicz, A Holocaust Reader (New York: Behrman, 1976), pp. 150-155, and (in part) in: Francis R. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (Austin: Univ. of Texas, 1985), p. 42.; On Zionism in Germany before Hitler’s assumption of power, see: Donald L. Niewyk, The Jews in Weimar Germany (Baton Rouge: 1980), pp. 94-95, 126-131, 140-143.; F. Nicosia, Third Reich (Austin: 1985), pp. 1-15.
5. Jüdische Rundschau (Berlin), June 13, 1933. Quoted in: Heinz Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head (New York: Ballantine, pb., 1971, 1984), pp. 376-377.
6. Heinz Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head (Ballantine, 1971, 1984), p. 376.
7. “Berlin,” Encyclopaedia Judaica (New York and Jerusalem: 1971), Vol. 5, p. 648. For a look at one aspect of this “vigorous life,” see: J.-C. Horak, “Zionist Film Propaganda in Nazi Germany,” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1984, pp. 49-58.
8. Francis R. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (1985), pp. 54-55.; Karl A. Schleunes, The Twisted Road to Auschwitz (Urbana: Univ. of Illinois, 1970, 1990), pp. 178-181.
9. Jacob Boas, “A Nazi Travels to Palestine,” History Today (London), January 1980, pp. 33-38.
10. Facsimile reprint of front page of Das Schwarze Korps, May 15, 1935, in: Janusz Piekalkiewicz, Israels Langer Arm (Frankfurt: Goverts, 1975), pp. 66-67. Also quoted in: Heinz Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head (Ballantine, 1971, 1984), p. 377. See also: Erich Kern, ed., Verheimlichte Dokumente (Munich: FZ-Verlag, 1988), p. 184.
11. as Schwarze Korps, Sept. 26, 1935. Quoted in: F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (1985), pp. 56-57.
12. Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (1983), p. 83.
13. F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (1985), p. 60. See also: F. Nicosia, “The Yishuv and the Holocaust,” The Journal of Modern History (Chicago), Vol. 64, No. 3, Sept. 1992, pp. 533-540.
14. F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (1985), p. 57.
15. Jüdische Rundschau, Sept. 17, 1935. Quoted in: Yitzhak Arad, with Y. Gutman and A. Margaliot, eds., Documents on the Holocaust (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1981), pp. 82-83.
16. Der Angriff, Dec. 23, 1935, in: E. Kern, ed., Verheimlichte Dokumente (Munich: 1988), p. 148.; F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), p. 56.; L. Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (1983), p. 138.; A. Margaliot, “The Reaction…,” ad Vashem Studies (Jerusalem), vol. 12, 1977, pp. 90-91.; On Kareski’s remarkable career, see: H. Levine, “A Jewish Collaborator in Nazi Germany,” Central European History (Atlanta), Sept. 1975, pp. 251-281.
17. “Dr. Wise Urges Jews to Declare Selves as Such,” New York Herald Tribune, June 13, 1938, p. 12.
18. F. Nicosia, The Third Reich (1985), p. 53.
19. Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945 (New York: Bantam, pb., 1976), pp. 253-254.; Max Nussbaum, “Zionism Under Hitler,” Congress Weekly (New York: American Jewish Congress), Sept. 11, 1942.; F. Nicosia, The Third Reich (1985), pp. 58-60, 217.; Edwin Black, The Transfer Agreement (1984), p. 175.
20. H. Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head (Ballantine, pb., 1984), pp. 380-382.; K. Schleunes, Twisted Road (1970, 1990), p. 226.; Secret internal SS intelligence report about F. Polkes, June 17, 1937, in: John Mendelsohn, ed., The Holocaust (New York: Garland, 1982), vol. 5, pp. 62-64.
21. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 63-64, 105, 219-220.
22. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), p. 160.
23. This distinction is also implicit in the “Balfour Declaration” of November 1917, in which the British government expressed support for “a national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine, while carefully avoiding any mention of a Jewish state. Referring to the majority Arab population there, the Declaration went on to caution, “…it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.” The complete text of the Declaration is reproduced in facsimile in: Robert John, Behind the Balfour Declaration (IHR, 1988), p. 32.
24. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), p. 121.
25. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), p. 124.
26. David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German Politics 1889-1945 (Bar-Ilan University, Israel, 1974), p. 300.; Also in: Documents on German Foreign Policy, Series D, Vol. 5. Doc. No. 564 or 567.
27. K. Schleunes, The Twisted Road (1970, 1990), p. 209.
28. Circular of January 25, 1939. Nuremberg document 3358-PS. International Military Tribunal, Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg: 1947-1949), vol. 32, pp. 242-243. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (Washington, DC: 1946-1948), vol. 6, pp. 92-93.
29. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 141-144.; On Hitler’s critical view of Zionism in Mein Kampf, see esp. Vol. 1, Chap. 11. Quoted in: Robert Wistrich, Hitler’s Apocalypse (London: 1985), p. 155.; See also: F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 26-28.; Hitler told his army adjutant in 1939 and again in 1941 that he had asked the British in 1937 about transferring all of Germany’s Jews to Palestine or Egypt. The British rejected the proposal, he said, because it would cause further disorder. See: H. v. Kotze, ed., Heeresadjutant bei Hitler (Stuttgart: 1974), pp. 65, 95.
30. F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 156, 160-164, 166-167.; H. Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head (Ballantine, pb., 1984), pp. 392-394.; Jon and David Kimche, The Secret Roads (London: Secker and Warburg, 1955), pp. 39-43. See also: David Yisraeli, “The Third Reich and Palestine,” Middle Eastern Studies, October 1971, p. 347.; Bernard Wasserstein, Britain and the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945 (1979), pp. 43, 49, 52, 60.; T. Kelly, “Man who fooled Nazis,” Washington Times, April 28, 1987, pp. 1B, 4B. Based on interview with Willy Perl, author of The Holocaust Conspiracy.
31. Y. Arad, et al., eds., Documents On the Holocaust (1981), p. 155. (The training kibbutz was at Neuendorf, and may have functioned even after March 1942.)
32. On the Agreement in general, see: Werner Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer nach Palaestina (Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1972).; David Yisraeli, “The Third Reich and the Transfer Agreement,” Journal of Contemporary History (London), No. 2, 1971, pp. 129-148.; “Haavara,” Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 7, pp. 1012-1013.; F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (Austin: 1985), pp. 44-49.; Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985), pp. 140-141.; The Transfer Agreement, by Edwin Black, is detailed and useful. However, it contains numerous inaccuracies and wildly erroneous conclusions. See, for example, the review by Richard S. Levy in Commentary, Sept. 1984, pp. 68-71.
33. E. Black, The Transfer Agreement (1984), pp. 328, 337.
34. On opposition to the Haavara in official German circles, see: W. Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer nach Palaestina (1972), pp. 31-33.; D. Yisraeli, “The Third Reich,” Journal of Contemporary History, 1971, pp. 136-139.; F. Nicosia, The Third Reich and the Palestine Question, pp. 126-139.; I. Weckert, Feuerzeichen (1981), pp. 226-227.; Rolf Vogel, Ein Stempel hat gefehlt (Munich: Droemer Knaur, 1977), pp. 110 ff.
35. W. Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer (1972), p. 31. Entire text in: David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German Politics 1889-1945 (Israel: 1974), pp. 298-300.
36. Interior Ministry internal memo (signed by State Secretary W. Stuckart), Dec. 17, 1937, in: Helmut Eschwege, ed., Kennzeichen J (Berlin: 1966), pp. 132-136.
37. W. Feilchenfeld, et al, Haavara-Transfer (1972), p. 32.
38. E. Black, Transfer Agreement, pp. 376-377.
39. E. Black, Transfer Agreement (1984), pp. 376, 378.; F. Nicosia, Third Reich (1985), pp. 238-239 (n. 91).
40. E. Black, Transfer Agreement, p. 379.; F. Nicosia, Third Reich, pp. 212, 255 (n. 66).
41. W. Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer, p. 75.; “Haavara,” Encyclopaedia Judaica, (1971), Vol. 7, p. 1013.
42. E. Black, Transfer Agreement, pp. 379, 373, 382.
43. Circular of January 25, 1939. Nuremberg document 3358-PS. International Military Tribunal, Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg: 1947-1949), Vol. 32, pp. 242-243.
44. Werner Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer nach Palaestina (Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1972). Quoted in: Ingrid Weckert, Feuerzeichen (Tübingen: Grabert, 1981), pp. 222-223.
45. W. Feilchenfeld, et al., Haavara-Transfer nach Palaestina(1972). Quoted in: I. Weckert, euerzeichen (1981), p. 224.
46. Original document in German Auswärtiges Amt Archiv, Bestand 47-59, E 224152 and E 234155-58. (Photocopy in author’s possession).; Complete original German text published in: David Yisraeli, The Palestine Problem in German Politics 1889-1945 (Israel: 1974), pp. 315-317. See also: Klaus Polkhen, “The Secret Contacts,” Journal of Palestine Studies, Spring-Summer 1976, pp. 78-80.; (At the time this offer was made, Stern’s Lehi group still regarded itself as the true Irgun/NMO.)
47. Arab nationalists opposed Britain, which then dominated much of the Arab world, including Egypt, Iraq and Palestine. Because Britain and Germany were at war, Germany cultivated Arab support. The leader of Palestine’s Arabs, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, worked closely with Germany during the war years. After escaping from Palestine, he spoke to the Arab world over German radio and helped raise Muslim recruits in Bosnia for the Waffen SS.
48. Israel Shahak, “Yitzhak Shamir, Then and Now,” Middle East Policy (Washington, DC), Vol. 1, No. 1, (Whole No. 39), 1992, pp. 27-38.; Yehoshafat Harkabi, Israel’s Fateful Hour (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), pp. 213-214. Quoted in: Andrew J. Hurley, Israel and the New World Order (Santa Barbara, Calif.: 1991), pp. 93, 208-209.; Avishai Margalit, “The Violent Life of Yitzhak Shamir,” New York Review of Books, May 14, 1992, pp. 18-24.; Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (1983), pp. 266-269.; L. Brenner, Jews in America Today (1986), pp. 175-177.; L. Brenner, “Yitzhak Shamir: On Hitler’s Side,” Arab Perspectives (League of Arab States), March 1984, pp. 11-13.
49. Avishai Margalit, “The Violent Life of Yitzhak Shamir,” New York Review of Books, May 14, 1992, pp. 18-24.; Lenni Brenner, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators (1983), pp. 266-269.; L. Brenner, Jews in America Today (1986), pp. 175-177.; L. Brenner, “Skeletons in Shamir’s Cupboard,” Middle East International, Sept. 30, 1983, pp. 15-16.; Sol Stern, L. Rapoport, “Israel’s Man of the Shadows,” Village Voice (New York), July 3, 1984, pp. 13 ff.
From The Journal of Historical Review, July-August 1993 (Vol. 13, No. 4), pages 29-37.
Mark Weber studied history at the University of Illinois (Chicago), the University of Munich, Portland State University and Indiana University (M.A., 1977). In March 1988 he testified for five days in Toronto District Court as a recognized expert witness on Germany’s wartime Jewish policy and the Holocaust issue.
The History of Banking in the United States
Many people think the government prints our money and our money is actually part of our government but the Federal Reserve is actually a privately owned bank with very little regulation from elected officials. In fact the government, the administration, legislative, and judicial officers for the most part submits to the banks and corporations and do their bidding.
Bank of England began to loan money to the King in 1694 when the private bank of England was founded. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2009/jan/08/central-bank-england
The 4th Article of the treaty of Paris is quite interesting, “Article 4th: It is agreed that Creditors on either Side shall meet with no lawful Impediment to the Recovery of the full Value in Sterling Money of all bona fide Debts heretofore contracted.” https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=6&page=transcript The first point of interest is there is no name given to these creditors and the second point being that both sides were now bound by treaty to pay an unnamed entity that loaned money to both the Unites States and Great Britain. The Rothschild family were major players in the banking business in both France where the United States most likely borrowed money for their war effort and the bank of England during the war. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genealogy_of_the_Rothschild_family
The First (private) Bank of the United States was signed into being by the United States government February 25, 1791 and given a 20 year charter, a monopoly over the currency. This one of the reasons I have said the founding fathers held African slaves, were genocidal to the Native Peoples and sold the European working class immigrants off to the international bankers from the get go, this history is nothing to be patriotic or proud of. The granting of this charter by the Congress and signed by the president into law, is nothing more than a private monopoly over the nation’s money supply. Doing this was and is still contradictory to the very Constitution that is the basis of the authority of the government itself. Under Article 1 Section 8, while the Congress has the authority to borrow money under Clause 2, it also has the duty to regulate commerce under Clause 3 and to Coin Money under Clause 5. Giving such a charter to private people who do not answer to the government is nothing short of treason. Those founding fathers were not that stupid, they knew what they were doing and some of those early Congressmen such as Thomas Jefferson had enough virtue to point out the unconstitutionality of such a charter, something I pointed out exactly what I wrote earlier, the Charter was unconstitutional this crime against the people and against their oaths to defend the Constitution, yet the majority were nothing but greedy lying old white men all along. https://www.historycentral.com/NN/economic/Greatdebate.html
It did not take long before the bankers owned the country through their debt based fiat currency scam and after their 20 year reign was up an otherwise genocidal greedy lying scoundrel, Andrew Jackson did the right thing and refused to renew their bank charter, although there have been times that the international banker cabal noose was loosened, 20 year was too late, a royal banking nobility class arose the was too rich and internationally connected to allow for the constitutional articles to ever be the basis of law and order in our country for longer than brief periods which were still constant struggle against the royal banker class. Too late for those of the past but not too late to convert humanity to a publicly owned method of exchange of our goods and services, it is never too late, see the public central bank(PCB) become a reality as outlined in the PCB chapter of the send part of The West.
On March 10, 1862, the first United States paper money was issued. The denominations at the time were $5, $10, and $20 and became legal tender on March 17, 1862. The inclusion of the motto “In God We Trust” on all currency was required by law in 1955. It first appeared on paper money in 1957 on One-Dollar Silver Certificates and on all Federal Reserve Notes beginning with Series 1963.
Lincoln and the Civil War Congress printed money independent of the international banking cartel, although this money had it’s problems, exchange of ‘green backs’ as ‘legal tender’ won the war. When we, every citizen becomes a stake holder in the government and become the government, we will have publicly issued value of services based publicly owned money issued by the government run by the people through national referendum and direct participatory democracy. I jumped ahead here again and this method along side private wealth and ownership is a suggestion that is discussed in greater detail in the public central bank chapter of the second part. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenback_(1860s_money)
1929 stock market crash
So obviously there is a manufactured discourse between here between truth reality and the official story of the depression. We know when houses, farms and businesses are foreclosed and repossessed, real wealth is transferred to the bankers at a great rate. http://www.iowapbs.org/iowapathways/mypath/great-depression-hits-farms-and-cities-1930s
Hundreds of thousands of farm-owning families had their hard-earned land seized from under them.
How many people lost the homes they were paying on due to the great depression?
In 1932, 273,000 people lost their homes. During the next year, a thousand mortgages a day were being foreclosed. By 1933, 40 to 50 percent of all home mortgages in the United States were in default. https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/housing-1929-1941 I wonder how many of the bankers ever pounded a nail into two boards of a house yet they own at least part of about 63% of all homes in the United States which the inhabitants have a mortgage to pay on to this day: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-07-17/close-to-40-of-u-s-homes-are-free-and-clear-of-a-mortgage
In gathering this information, I found it easy to get stories on how many banks went under went insolvent but much harder to find out how many people lost their homes. It seems like once a home is foreclosed and the previous owners are driven off the property, the practice was to hold a public auction and the property is sold to the highest bidder. I wonder how many properties where held by the banks and owners of the banks until the prices went back up? Real wealth is raw natural resources, labor, goods and services, this is the real hard wealth. The word artificial comes to mind; even a gold standard based monetary system does not explain the raising and lowering of the rate of the amount of money being added or subtracted from the system of currency. If the bankers had nothing to gain by kicking people out of their houses because they were no longer able to pay on their mortgages why would they have kicked them out? Why could they not have lowered their payment plans to match the lower value due to the drop in the value of the property do to the manipulation of the monetary system? I believe the owners of the private monetary system monopoly, which in the case of the United States, the Federal Reserve is, must have gained wealth during the depression. Regardless of gain the private ownership of the federal reserve over the monetary system remained intact through the depression to this very day. The federal reserve literature claims they are doing us a favor by owning and regulating every aspect of our lives, while in reality their private ownership of the monetary system is nothing but a modern equivalence of slavery. How many favors would you guess Jamie Dimon has done for people to have a personal worth of 1.4 billion dollars, although the Wikipedia article by his name states he is only one of a few bankers to become a billionaire, this fact is proof that the privately owned banking system does not fairly distribute wealth on the basis of an individual’s contribution to the human collective but rather provides a covet means making a certain line of parasites rich beyond all measure.
Banks, Wall Street and corporations financed the rise of Hitler is proof of the mindless immoral state of putting profit above all else. https://www.globalresearch.ca/history-of-world-war-ii-nazi-germany-was-financed-by-the-federal-reserve-and-the-bank-of-england/5530318 http://www.reformation.org/wall-st-ch7.html https://11points.com/2008/09/11/11-companies-surprisingly-collaborated-nazis/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_companies_involved_in_the_Holocaust https://archive.org/stream/HowHitlerDefiedTheInternationalBankers/HowHitlerDefiedTheBankers_djvu.txt https://medium.com/@duplacer/hitler-was-financed-by-the-federal-reserve-and-the-bank-of-england-by-yuri-rubtsov-e972e3347f0e
There were also quite a few Jews who fought in WWII on the side of the Third Reich. https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-jews-who-fought-for-hitler-we-did-not-help-the-germans-we-had-a-common-enemy https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/.premium-when-hitler-honored-jewish-soldiers-1.5254336 https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/.premium-when-hitler-honored-jewish-soldiers-1.5254336
Bush Sr. savings and loan bail out scandal.
Several members of the Bush family ended up getting free money during the savings and loan scandal. http://www.rationalrevolution.net/war/bush_family_and_the_s.htm
Bush Obama banker bail out. President Bush signed and Senator Obama championed the, banker bailout in Congress, known as the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008.
This is one of the best articles about what truly happened as a result of the banker bail out which was 700 billion on paper as the result of the Economic Stabilization Act, but in all reality the bankers gave themselves 16.8 trillion dollars.
The Federal Reserve along with the Bank for International Settlements are for all purposes the Centeral Bank of last resort for the world. From the 2011 GAO report the figure of 16.8 trillion is the amount of new money the bankers created from nowhere as the result of the USG giving tor loaning them the 700 billion. So they used the same theories of fractional reserve banking and other magical spells to conjure up the 16.8 trillion dollars they added to the system.
Fed saying their monetary policy is independent of the government and elected officials not questioning this is evidence of their complacency in an unconstitutional on going crime against the people of what is now known as the United States of America.
Of course the banks tell their own story: https://www.okhistory.org/historycenter/federalreserve/edutimeline.html
The federal reserve does not answer to any branch of the United States Government concerning it’s monetary policy. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/041515/why-federal-reserve-independent.asp
The words of past Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, when interviewed by Jim Lehrer of PBS:
Jim Lehrer: What is the ah proper relationship, what should be the proper relationship between a chairman of the ‘FED’ and the president of the United States?
Alan Greenspan: Well first of all the Federal Reserve is an independent agency and that means ah, there is no other agency which can overrule actions that we take so long that is in place and there is no evidence that the administration or the congress or anybody else is ah requesting that we do things other than what we think is the appropriate thing, then what the relationships are don’t really matter and ah I’ve had very good relationships with presidents.
Words of past Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke when being questioned about legislation concerning a Government Accountability Office audit of the Federal Reserve:
“my concern about legislation is that if the GAO is auditing not only the operational aspects of our programs and the details of the programs but is making judgments about our policy decisions that would effectively be a takeover monetary policy by the Congress a repudiation of the independence of the Federal reserve which would be highly destructive to the stability of the financial system, the dollar and ah our national economic situation.”
Just in case you think they do this private banking thing our of the kindness in their hearts:
Jerome Powell says if Trump fires to fire him he will say “no” and stay his full term:
The Chairman of the Federal Reserve is also on the Board of Directors of the Bank for International Settlements in Switzerland. So since the Federal Reserve does not answer to the United States Congress or the President this position is in fact a foreign “title of nobility”
Here is the annual salary of the Federal Reserve Chairman and other ‘Fed’ governors:
Fed Chairman is $203,500. The annual salary of the other Fed Governors is $183,100.
That would seem, maybe fair if it were true but now lets see the earnings of the 10 highest paid bankers. To make is short and sweet the top paid banker sucked in $19.3 million and the tenth highest paid banker sucked up only $12.7 million in one year being 2015.
One Banker, Jamie Dimon is not even on the 2015 list. He is said to be worth 1.6 billion dollars and according to this article his annual salary is 27.5 million dollars: https://www.celebritynetworth.com/richest-businessmen/ceos/jamie-dimon-net-worth/
These narcissistic sociopaths act like they are doing you a favor by allowing you a mortgage or a loan on a car you can use to get back ad forth to work, this is every bit as despicable as modern day slavery.
Then we also have an even larger legal financial royal rip off sector of their economy called ‘hedge funds’. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/30/four-hedge-fund-managers-top-1-billion-in-pay.html: https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/30/four-hedge-fund-managers-top-1-billion-in-pay.html So let’s say they work really hard and did their job for 50 week that years and worked 40 hours a week. One billion divided by 50 weeks divided by 40 hours is $½ a million an hour. That amount of annual wealth accumulation by any other name is a title of nobility, that is what issuing a privately owned monopoly over the monetary system is.
Shuffling and distributing money does not add any good or service to the people who actually work yet the people closer to the monetary system monopoly become multi-millionaires and multi-billionaires so the private monetary system monopoly is equivalent to a modern form of slavery.
For well over 100 years in the United States without question or challenge, as well as millennia of human history, private money is the defining interaction affecting our entire lives. Money the method of exchange of all our goods and services determining how we live, what level of recognized academic education and credentials we will be recognized in and what kind of job we can get if we are even required to work to gain wealth, what sort of house we live in, even who we marry, or if you are born rich. Yet very few people know the history of money, what money really is, how new money is created and added to the system and who owns this throttle valve that both enriches and rules over our lives like no other force. If you have watched James Corbet’s Century of Salvery; History of the Federal Reserve, read Estates Mullins you may want to glance or skip this chapter unless you still hold onto misunderstandings about the history of money despite such informative studies.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic tangible value that has been established as money,
The Federal Reserve Act of Treason
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Open Market Committee shall maintain long run growth of the monetary and credit aggregates commensurate with the economy’s long run potential to increase production, so as to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/12/225a
Long term growth of money is a long time elite monetary system buying things with money they added to the system through a seemingly complex scheme.
The Federal Reserve provided the following submission to Congress and the people in 2011:
It basically gives us proof that the Central Bank, which in this case is the Federal Reserve and the Bank For International Settlements, print money from thin air, from formulas with the intent of collecting their fiat money back, yet over time they increase the supply of money. Here is a chart I find sort of hilarious, they basically use 5 column headings named after Roman kings to categorize and legitimize disbursing trillions of dollars of money to banks. See Appendix X, Figure 27, page 210 of the 11696 GAO report:
Is this all just a scheme of justification of distributing commercial private fiat currency at low interest to large banks, as a result of the bail out? By memory I believe it was about 16 trillion dollars, about the same as the US national debt at the time. So yes here is a source to that number: https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikecollins/2015/07/14/the-big-bank-bailout/#3882cbb22d83 https://www.businessinsider.com/feds-16-trillion-dollar-secret-slush-fund-props-up-our-way-of-life-2011-7
Now look at this, Table 8 from page 131 of the GAO 11-696 2011 Federal Reserve Report to Congress:
Notice the figures are in billions and the total is over 16 trillion dollars. So while the bankers act as if they are doing you a favor by trickling down the services of their private monetary system monopolizing money. To the contrary bankers like Jamie Dimon a well known banker is personally worth over 1.3 billion dollars so who is doing who a favor here by their ownership of a private monetary system monopoly? https://www.cnbc.com/2019/04/11/jpmorgan-chase-ceo-jamie-dimon-rules-to-be-a-successful-boss.html
We are so thoroughly indoctrinated that we accept the human phenomenon of money without questioning it’s origin or basis of it’s value and implications it has on the quality of each of our individual lives as well as our collective cultural and material existence.
To fairly, thoroughly narrate and accurately describe the economic hierarchy which is obviously undeniably independent and unrelated to individual contributions to benefit of other individuals and humanity as a whole. Instead is a system of parasitic usury where privileged greed trumps public interest and common good.
The Failed Resistance
Eugene Debs a trade union organizer and peace activist said “The Republican and Democratic parties are alike capitalist(corporate) parties — differing only in being committed to different sets of capitalist interests”. That was over 100 years ago, nothing has changed. Let’s break the Republican and democratic duopoly beginning November 6th be brave cast a vote for direct participatory democracy for Wisconsin’s 7th district (My first time on the ballot in 2018). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugene_V._Debs
The Communist Manifesto is about empowering the “proletariat” meaning that the people who actually manufacture the goods and services receive a greater share of their labors rather than the “bourgeoisie” demanding the cream of the crop as the owners of the means of production. Interesting that Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels separated human society into three classes: Proletariat (working class), Bourgeoisie(middle class, business owners) and the Aristocracy(ruling class), yet does not see the symbiotic relationship between the two upper class theoretical divisions. http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/61/pg61-images.html After reading the Manifesto of the Communist Party popularly known as the Communist Manifesto, I realized that Marx and Engels writings argued against the bourgeoisie in favor of the proletariat with little concern about the ruling class as if they were submitting to or trying to favor or not consider the power and wealth of the aristocracy. In fact in the their writings, Marx and Engels try to appeal to the ruling class to enlist them in their battle with the bourgeoisie. In fact while they sought to describe and represent the proletariat they received a commission meaning funding of money from the Communist League https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Communist_Manifesto. Where does money come from and who controlled and owned the monetary system in their day? They must have known about the Rothschild family who were extremely wealthy and powerful bankers of the day that could make or brake any government on Earth. In Das Kapital on page 81 they do discuss the gold standard and paper money relating to gold or gold and silver on hand and again on page 115 they mention that interest is money making money, “But interest is money of money, so that of all modes of making a living, this is the most contrary to Nature.” a quote of Benjamin Franklin from the Works of B. Franklin. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/Capital-Volume-I.pdf
By memory it seems to me that Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels did not say much about the ruling elite’s roll in the hierarchy of people who produce nothing remaining at the top owning a disproportionate amount of goods and resources. Also they did not seem to present an alternative to the debt based monetary system as our trade mechanism, I have advocated for a publicly owned value based monetary system for years. There was a time when rulers, owners investors seemed to have a greater knowledge and ability to lead us in a way that provided more goods to everyone. As a species we are now are depleting and polluting natural resources at a rate that has exceeded nature’s ability to replace those resources. The capitalist game plan, fake economic instruments and a government that caters to the wealthy minority have always used their monetary system monopoly to further justify and even legislate into law the unconstitutional authority of a royal class of nobility.
Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognized as one of the world’s most influential political documents. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Communist_Manifesto Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels got paid to write and publish the Communist Manifesto, “commissioned” an artistic or literary work : ordered to be made in exchange for payment. So there lays the conundrum, they were paid write the Communist Manifesto and raised money to print a book explaining that a society can work without exchange of money, this need for money to espouse and distribute a book detailing a society without money requires money. At that time in history, 1848 banks were privately owned, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oldest_banks_in_continuous_operation so to write about governance with out considering that governments were dependent on the private banking cabal just as they are today. Money now as then acts as a method of transfer of wealth from nature and workers who transform those natural raw resources into goods and services. Even with this redistribution of wealth there is a fraction of benefit on an otherwise universal means of exchange of goods and services that cannot be denied. Just imagine if distribution of wealth was based on each individual’s contribution to the wealth of the collective rather than money being awarded to parasitic factions of society who are often top feeders? The public ownership of the monetary system is a necessity in the business of fair rewards for fair service of the collective. This public central bank concept will be further considered where it belongs in the second part of The West in the chapter so named defining the revolutionary proposals concerning public money. So the words “Controlled Opposition” and “Gate Keepers” come into thought and rationale when considering any organization and response to rabid capitalism.
Neo-Liberalism is basically laissez-faire ideology no different than conservative ideology. All so called liberals end up following Neo-Liberals. They have no plan for doing anything except class climbing. The global warming, climate change issue being the only message of the left is proof they are not liberal, if they were liberal the totality of human impact on the biosphere would be considered and rational plans to limit human population grown, super insulate our living spaces and make our transportation more efficient and less harmful to minimize our human impact of the planet would already be in the works. Neo-liberalism is not a legitimate resistance to private monetary monopoly.
Independent private banks issued notes loosely associated with gold in their vaults up until 1913, for the most of the history of the United States there has been a private central bank such as the First Bank of the United States, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791 up to and including the Federal Reserve from 1913 up to the present. There were three occasions in United States history where money was printed independently of the international banker cartel, those being the continental note during the Revolutionary War, the green back dollars printed during the civil war and silver certificates printed during the Kennedy presidency.
Conclusion of monetary order chapter
What are the odds of every US President being related to the same few European kings and royalty? https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2183858/All-presidents-bar-directly-descended-medieval-English-king.html , https://www.infoplease.com/us/government/executive-branch/us-presidents-who-were-related-to-each-otherThe only reason for this has to be is an unspoken system of United States royal nobility. Just do the math, scientific achievements, discoveries and truly good literature, music and art, do not come from a few families, in spite of this class advantage, the not so secret existence of a royal moneyed class robs us of our self determination as individuals as well as a diverse nation of peoples. The private monetary system monopoly with the creation and distribution of money in the control of a small group of people is not only unfair it is not even healthy for the people of this loosely defined privileged class themselves. If it were not for their innate greed we could have been studying researching, proposing organizing and working on problems of over population, pollution and depletion of resources for over 100 years already. It does not nor did not take a renowned math and statistics expert to predict the exponential growth of the human population due to antiquated economic instruments designed only for the maximum profit of the few at the expense of the many. The owner investor monetary system monopolizing class are not that smart they are not worth what they cost the rest of us.
In finality of this chapter, these people which are the true rulers the true owners and operators of our government will do anything and everything to hold on to their positions of wealth and power. The only thing these people love on the same level as their monetary system monopoly is waging war. They use money and finance to invest and entrap both sides of every war and they also invest in the weapons industry artificially making war, the killing of one another the largest single industry of human activity dwarfing food production housing education transportation and all other human activities. This propensity of the people who call the shots to invest in war is so important for all of humanity to understand that the next chapter is dedicated to documenting and understanding war. We can no longer afford to let people who believe they are privileged and deserve to be above us rule over us. We need leaders the humble themselves and work for us rather than act like top feeding parasites. We need horizontal rather than vertical organization, we need to understand, implement and organize upon the concept of self determination, something that no people, no nation cant possess under a private system of world wide monetary system monopoly. Please consider thinking about and adding to or subtracting from the monetary reform proposals in the second part of this book which helps define the coming Western peaceful organized people’s revolution.
In the days of Trump and some undefined sort of neoconservative movement based on propaganda, gun rights, renewed racism, Hitleresque nationalism and resurrected trickle down theories of Reagan and the rich cannot be taxed theories and practice, it is long past time to think about our past to determine our future. I ask you what is in a name? The Trump neoconservatives have taken to saying the liberals hate America. I love the country I was born into. I have studied the origins of the name given to the continent of my birth. This chapter discusses the true history of the naming of the largest land area in the Western Hemisphere, the Continent.
America was named after Amerigo Vespicci and per translation of a letter he wrote, Vepucci dealed in slaves. “and we thereon made sail for Spain with 222 captive slaves: and reached the port of Calis (Cadiz) on the 15th day of October, 1498, where we were well received and sold our slaves.”, http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/before-1600/letter-of-amerigo-vespucci-to-pier-soderini-1497.php . A modern nation in a modern world on a modern continent should not be named after a slave trader.
How Did America Get Its Name?
July 4, 2016 by Erin Allen
Today, America celebrates its independence. Our founding fathers drafted and adopted the Declaration of Independence, declaring America’s freedom from Great Britain and setting in motion universal human rights.
While the colonies may have established it, “America” was given a name long before. America is named after Amerigo Vespucci, the Italian explorer who set forth the then revolutionary concept that the lands that Christopher Columbus sailed to in 1492 were part of a separate continent. A map created in 1507 by Martin Waldseemüller was the first to depict this new continent with the name “America,” a Latinized version of “Amerigo.”
“wald-america”: “America” is identified in the top portion of this segment of the 1507 Waldseemüller map. Geography and Map Division. A crown jewel in the Library’s cartographic collections is the map, also known as “America’s Birth Certificate.” While the map has been much publicized since it was acquired in 2003, it’s worthy of exploration today of all days.
The map grew out of an ambitious project in St. Dié, France, in the early years of the 16th century, to update geographic knowledge flowing from the new discoveries of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Waldseemüller’s large world map was the most exciting product of that research effort. He included on the map data gathered by Vespucci during his voyages of 1501-1502 to the New World. Waldseemüller named the new lands “America” on his 1507 map in the recognition of Vespucci’s understanding that a new continent had been uncovered following Columbus’ and subsequent voyages in the late 15th century. An edition of 1,000 copies of the large wood-cut print was reportedly printed and sold, but no other copy is known to have survived. It was the first map, printed or manuscript, to depict clearly a separate Western Hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. The map reflected a huge leap forward in knowledge, recognizing the newly found American landmass and forever changing mankind’s understanding and perception of the world itself.
For more than 350 years the map was housed in a 16th-century castle in Wolfegg, in southern Germany. The introduction to Waldseemüller’s “Cosmographie” actually contains the first suggestion that the area of Columbus’ discovery be named “America” in honor of Vespucci, who recognized that a “New World,” the so-called fourth part of the world, had been reached through Columbus’ voyage. Before that time, there was no name that collectively identified the Western Hemisphere. The earlier Spanish explorers referred to the area as the Indies believing, as did Columbus, that it was a part of eastern Asia.
The Library has plenty of other resources on Waldseemüller and the map, including videos and a pretty cool story regarding the institution’s partnership with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in building a hermetically sealed case for the priceless map. You can also read about the project on the NIST site.
competing theories (comments below from the same link)
July 21, 2018 at 10:15 pm
You people can’t be serious?
Don’t you know by now that if you want any real history of The United States Co. Which The United States is a privately owned Corporation. That’s the correct title.
That’s why we have a president/CEO/overseer.
But you have to go out side of this country to get real information, and the rest of the world laughs at us.
Amurika is the ancient Berber word for Morocco.
Amerrk/Amurruk, it means “land in the west”
The land of milk and honey.
Variants- Amurika, Amerrica, Amurru, Amaru, Amerruka,
The aboriginal peoples of the Americas are,
Americans, Amurricans, Amurrukans, Amurikans, Al Maurikas,
Al moro’cans, Mori’cans, Maurs, Mors, Moors, Murrs, Muurs.
It was NOT named after Amerigo Vespucci.
America is the land of the west,
Also North Africa
Historical and geographically the original people of America are,
These names have been around for 1000s of years. (no sources provided)
You can see perfectly clear were the name America evolved from.
To just totally forget about the history that was here for so long before Columbus and give Amerigo Vespucci the credit for the name is crazy. Your insulting your own intelligence.
It’s so confusing on purpose, but the purpose was to steal the birth rights.
Arabs will swear that the land is Morocco but is only governoed by The United States Co. It’s a weird claim but there is truth behind it. George Washington was the 9th president by the way.
It’s all on congressional documents.
All this here say there say boils down to making sure we call each other white or black people, which is also in congressional documents under the Christan color codes.
If you claim your status is a color you are nothing and will never have nothing.
The rest of the world understands this, and then they come here and get are birthrights by claiming there nationality and get money to start businesses and live the good life because people think Amerigo Vespucci is the correct name.
If you actually really research this you will not like what you find out about how are supposed fellow countrymen has been making fools of us.
I will never claim i am a citizen of the United States again.
I only say I am a private citizen.
And the courts which are also privately owned is the biggest tricky this country has tricked us to INVOLENTARY participation.
Don’t take my word for any of it, but don’t deny this information unless you research it first.
September 19, 2018 at 1:20 pm
North America was not named after…Amerigo Vespucci
Richard Amerike (or Ameryk) pronounced America (c.1445-1503) was a wealthy English merchant, royal customs officer and sheriff of Welsh descent. He was the principal owner of Master John Cabot’s ship, Matthew, during his voyage of exploration to North America in 1497.
Amerike is chiefly remembered because of old documents rediscovered in 1955, proving his ship’s discovery of Newfoundland and lands southward to Maryland in 1497.
It is from Ameryk that the name, North America, is derived owing to his sponsorship of the voyagesto Newfoundland, rather than from Amerigo Vespucci, the Italian mapmaker who discovered South America but (1) who never came near North America (2) and who had labeled South America
“an Un-named Country” when he discovered it.
Records show that, in 1481…”R. Amerike shipped a load of salt (for salting fish) to fishermen in Newfoundland. The Bristol sailors named the area after the Bristol merchant they worked for…Richard Amerike.” England had been fishing for Cod at least as early as 1475 or earlier off the Grand Banks of Nova Scotia and Maine. North America first appeared in English Cartographic Charts of the world in 1502. Continental cartographers had no access to English charts due to hostilities from undeclared wars.
The cartographer Martin Waldseemueller in 1507 made up the name ‘America’ by converting m mAmerigo’ [Vespucci’s first name] into Latin to honor his discovery of the SOUTH AMERICAN Continent. mbut withdrew it in his 1516 edition as Terra Incognita: also name of a Maya Indian people.So, the two American continents appear to have been coincidentally given the same names by German and English mapmakers…but named after TWO different individuals (an Italian and a Welshman ) with substantial confirmations for the sources of this historical fluke.
11. English cod fishermen had been making landfall and trading with Indians in New England for myears before Columbus made his “discovery” of The New World in 1492 as had Scandinavians m mbefore him. Columbus was not the first European in the New World but “his discovery” lead to the
recognition and subsequent development…read ‘theft“ of the American Continents and the Pacific Rim by Europeans. Not to be remiss we need to recall that Leifur Eiríksson made a landing on Vinland (Nova Scotia) c1000AD…but without having any permanent effect.
Claim is made that St. Brendan the Voyager of Ireland discovered North America in mid-sixthcentury? But nothing came of this.
I recently heard a theory about the naming of America originating from “Amaru” a South American mystical serpent dragon. A person I met explained that there was a near collision between Venus and Earth about 15,000 years ago that caused a great fire like light in what is now called North America that was seen in South America. The cataclysmic event caused the groves in the Earth where the Great Lakes now are. I have found very little writing on this theory but I did find a book, that comes up in a search of Amaru titled Mysteries of Ancient South America and a Wikipedia article : https://www.google.com/books/edition/Mysteries_of_Ancient_South_America/uDTUF3wHlkoC?hl=en&gbpv=1&printsec=frontcover https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaru_(mythology)
Internet Searched: America named after Amaru
Personally, I don’t think this South American theory of Amaru historically adds up to the word behind the naming of America, yet it is certain we all have a limited ability to remember what we take in through our senses and a limited rational ability to use those stimulus, those inputs to determine facts. All as I am doing with this competing, alternative theories chapter section is to let it be known that alternative theories concerning the naming of the Western Hemisphere’s Continent and largest land mass ‘America’ does have alternative theories. I think we each have a right to our own beliefs and what it true for one person may not be held as truth by another. I think that we need to limit the level at which we believe the dependability of our so called truths so we can be open to the fact that our input data as well as our ability to determine what we consider factual is also limited. None the less I base this chapter and the name of this book on my belief that America was named after Amergo Vespucci.
Amerigo Vespucci, whom America is named after, searched for gold, made war and took slaves. That is not the kind of person we want our continent named after, is it?. The best name I can find for what is now called the United States of America for a while was is Vinland or Vineland. Legend has it that Lief Erickson (c. 970 – c. 1020) named the land he sailed to from Iceland stopping in Greenland along the way, Vinland, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leif_Erikson . I later decided against Vinland because it is of Viking origin and non-Scandinavian folks could label the name a white racist name. That combined with the fact that people native to the Western Continent already lived here. Then I thought we should have a naming contest so the name of our nation can be chosen by the majority who vote for names submitted. The name shall also be voted on, union of the peoples of middle north America, what ever, I thought it should be called Vine Land or find a native name from before European settlement that sounds good. Also, although it was used comically by the Marx Brothers in their 1933 movie ‘Duck Soup’, I really like “Freedonia” as a name for the former United States. According to Wikipedia, people of the new United States used ‘Freedonia’ to name their new nation right after the Revolutionary war but that name did not take hold.
While in European cultural point of view and possibly for the world it is probable that Amerigo Vespucci did discover that the land area now known as America was a continent separate from Europe and Asia. On the other hand as he definately was more of a ruthless conquistador and a slave dealer that was looking for gold but other than slaves came home empty handed. Here is the complete letter he sent explaining his voyage to one of his financiers. I felt is was good to include the whole letter because it gives us an idea as to the thoughts and prejudices and even some sense of humanity of the man and his time:
Letter of Amerigo Vespucci to Pier Soderini 1497
Amerigo Vespucci was born in Florence in 1452 and died in Seville in 1512. He was employed in the latter city in the business house which fitted out Columbus’ second expedition. The letter gives his own account of the first of the four voyages which he claimed to have made to the New World. He seems to have touched the mainland a few weeks before Cabot, and some fourteen months before Columbus. The suspicions which long clouded his title to fame have been largely dissipated by modern investigation; and it seems to have been not without reason that Waldseemuller in 1507 proposed to call the new continent by his name.
The present translation is made from Vespucci’s Italian (published at Florence in 1505-6) by �M. K., for Quaritch’s edition, London, 1885.
After humble reverence and due commendations, etc. It may be that your Magnificence will be surprised by (this conjunction of) my rashness and your customary wisdom, in that I should so absurdly bestir myself to write to your Magnificence the present so-prolix letter: knowing (as I do) that your Magnificence is continually employed in high councils and affairs concerning the good government of this sublime Republic. And will hold me not only presumptuous, but also idly-meddlesome in setting myself to write things, neither suitable to your station, nor entertaining, and written in barbarous style, and outside of every canon of polite literature: but my confidence which I have in your virtues and in the truth of my writing, which are things (that) are not found written neither by the ancients nor by modern writers, as your Magnificence will in the sequel perceive, makes me bold. The chief cause which moved (me) to write to you, was at the request of the present bearer, who is named Benvenuto Benvenuti our Florentine (fellow-citizen), very much, as it is proven, your Magnificence’s servant, and my very good friend: who happening to be here in this city of Lisbon, begged that I should make communication to your Magnificence of the things seen by me in divers regions of the world, by virtue of four voyages which I have made in discovery of new lands: two by order of the king of Castile, King Don Ferrando VI., across the great gulf of the Ocean-sea, towards the west: and the other two by command of the puissant King Don Manuel King of Portugal, towards the south; telling me that your Magnificence would take pleasure thereof, and that herein he hoped to do you service: wherefore I set me to do it: because I am assured that your Magnificence holds me in the number of your servants, remembering that in the time of our youth I was your friend, and now (am your)Amerigo Vespucci servant: and (remembering our) going to hear the rudiments of grammar under the fair example and instruction of the venerable monk friar of Saint Mark Fra Giorgio Antonio Vespucci: whose counsels and teaching would to God that I had followed: for as saith Petrarch, I should be another man than what I am. Howbeit soever I grieve not: because I have ever taken delight in worthy matters: and although these trifles of mine may not be suitable to your virtues, I will say to you as said Pliny to M�cenas, you were sometime wont to take pleasure in my prattlings: even though your Magnificence be continuously busied in public affairs, you will take some hour of relaxation to consume a little time in frivolous or amusing things: and as fennel is customarily given atop of delicious viands to fit them for better digestion, so may you, for a relief from your so heavy occupations, order this letter of mine to be read: so that they may withdraw you somewhat from the continual anxiety and assiduous reflection upon public affairs: and if I shall be prolix, I crave pardon, my Magnificent Lord. Your Magnificence shall know that the motive of my coming into his realm of Spain was to traffic in merchandise: and that I pursued this intent about four years: during which I saw and knew the inconstant shiftings of Fortune: and how she kept changing those frail and transitory benefits: and how at one time she holds man on the summit of the wheel, and at another time drives him back from her, and despoils him of what may be called his borrowed riches: so that, knowing the continuous toil which main undergoes to win them, submitting himself to so many anxieties and risks, I resolved to abandon trade, and to fix my aim upon something more praiseworthy and stable: whence it was that I made preparation for going to see part of the world and its wonders: and herefor the time and place presented themselves most opportunely to me: which was that the King Don Ferrando of Castile being about to despatch four ships to discover new lands towards the west, I was chosen by his Highness to go in that fleet to aid in making discovery: and we set out from the port of Cadiz on the 10th day of May 1497, and took our route through the great gulf of the Ocean-sea: in which voyage we were eighteen months (engaged): and discovered much continental land and innumerable islands, and great part of them inhabited: whereas there is no mention made by the ancient writers of them: I believe, because they had no knowledge thereof: for, if I remember well, I have read in some one (of those writers) that he considered that this Ocean-sea was an unpeopled sea: and of this opinion was Dante our poet in the xxvi. chapter of the Inferno, where he feigns the death of Ulysses, in which voyage I beheld things of great wondrousness, as your Magnificence shall understand. As I said above, we left the port of Cadiz four consort ships: and began our voyage in direct course to the Fortunates Isles which are called to-day la gran Canaria, which are situated in the Ocean-sea at the extremity of the inhabited west, (and) set in the third climate: over which the North Pole has an elevation of 27 and a half degrees beyond their horizon note and they are 280 leagues distant from this city of Lisbon, by the wind between mezzo di and libeccio: note where we remained eight days, taking in provision of water, and wood and other necessary things: and from here, having said our prayers, we weighed anchor, and gave the sails to the wind, beginning our course to westward, taking one quarter by southwest: note and so we sailed on till at the end of 37 days we reached a land which we deemed to be a continent: which is distant westwardly from the isles of Canary about a thousand leagues beyond the inhabited region note within the torrid zone: for we found the North Pole at an elevation of 16 degrees above its horizon, note and (it was) westward, according to the shewing of our instruments, 75 degrees from the isles of Canary: whereat we anchored with our ships a league and a half from land; and we put out our boats freighted with men and arms: we made towards the land, and before we reached it, had sight of a great number of people who were going along the shore: by which we were much rejoiced: and we observed that they were a naked race: they shewed themselves to stand in fear of us: I believe (it was) because they saw us clothed and of other appearance (than their own): they all withdrew to a hill, and for whatsoever signals we made to them of peace and of friendliness, they would not come to parley with us: so that, as the night was now coming on, and as the ships were anchored in a dangerous place, being on a rough and shelterless coast, we decided to remove from there the next day, and to go in search of some harbour or bay, where we might place our ships in safety: and we sailed with the maestrale wind, note thus running along the coast with the land ever in sight, continually in our course observing people along the shore: till after having navigated for two days, we found a place sufficiently secure for the ships, and anchored half a league from land, on which we saw a very great number of people: and this same day we put to land with the boats, and sprang on shore full 40 men in good trim: and still the land�s people appeared shy of converse with us, and we were unable to encourage them so much as to make them come to speak with us: and this day we laboured so greatly in giving them of our wares, such as rattles and mirrors, beads, spalline, and other trifles, that some of them took confidence and came to discourse with us: and after having made good friends with them, the night coming on, we took our leave of them and returned to the ships: and the next day when the dawn appeared we saw that there were infinite numbers of people upon the beach, and they had their women and children with them: we went, ashore, and found that they were all laden with their worldly goods note which are suchlike as, in its (proper) place, shall be related: and before we reached the land, many of them jumped into the sea and came swimming to receive us at a bowshot�s length (from the shore), for they are very great swimmers, with as much confidence as if they had for a long time been acquainted with us: and we were pleased with this their confidence. For so much as we learned of their manner of life and customs, it was that they go entirely naked, as well the men as the women�. They are of medium stature, very well proportioned: their flesh is of a colour the verges into red like a lion�s mane: and I believe that if they went clothed, they would be as white as we: they have not any hair upon the body, except the hair of the head which is long and black, and especially in the women, whom it renders handsome: in aspect they are not very good-looking, because they have broad faces, so that they would seem Tartar-like: they let no hair grow on their eyebrows, nor on their eyelids, nor elsewhere, except the hair of the head: for they hold hairiness to be a filthy thing: they are very light footed in walking and in running, as well the men as the women: so that a woman recks nothing of running a league or two, as many times we saw them do: and herein they have a very great advantage over us Christians: they swim (with an expertness) beyond all belief, and the women better than the men: for we have many times found and seen them swimming two leagues out at sea without anything to rest upon. Their arms are bows and arrows very well made, save that (the arrows) are not (tipped) with iron nor any other kind of hard metal: and instead of iron they put animals� or fishes� teeth, or a spike of tough wood, with the point hardened by fire: they are sure marksmen, for they hit whatever they aim at: and in some places the women use these bows: they have other weapons, such as fire-hardened spears, and also clubs with knobs, beautifully carved. Warfare is used amongst
them, which they carry on against people not of their own language, very cruelly, without granting life to any one, except (to reserve him) for greater suffering. When they go to war, they take their women with them, not that these may fight, but because they carry behind them their worldly goods, for a woman carries on her back for thirty or forty leagues a load which no man could bear: as we have many times seen them do. They are not accustomed to have any Captain, nor do they go in any ordered array, for every one is lord of himself: and the cause of their wars is not for lust of dominion, nor of extending their frontiers, no for inordinate covetousness, but for some ancient enmity which in by-gone times arose amongst them: and when asked why they made war, they knew not any other reason to give than that they did so to avenge the death of their ancestors, or of their parents: these people have neither King, nor Lord, nor do they yield obedience to any one, for they live in their own liberty: and how they be stirred up to go to war is (this) that when the enemies have slain or captured any of them, his oldest kinsman rises up and goes about the highways haranguing them to go with him and avenge the death of such his kinsman: and so are they stirred up by fellow-feeling: they have no judicial system, nor do they punish the ill-doer: nor does the father, nor the mother chastise the children and marvelously (seldom) or never did we see any dispute among them: in their conversation they appear simple, and they are very cunning and acute in that which concerns them: they speak little and in a low tone: they use the same articulations as we, since they form their utterances either with the palate, or with the teeth, or on the lips: note except that they give different names to things. Many are the varieties of tongues: for in every 100 leagues we found a change of language, so that they are not understandable each to the other. The manner of their living is very barbarous, for they do not eat at certain hours, and as often-times as they will: and it is not much of a boon to them note that the will may come more at midnight than by day, for they eat at all hours: and they eat upon the ground without a table-cloth or any other cover, for they have their meats either in earthen basins which they make themselves, or in the halves of pumpkins: they sleep in certain very large nettings made of cotton, suspended in the air: and although this their (fashion of) sleeping may seem uncomfortable, I say that it is sweet to sleep in those (nettings): and we slept better in them than in the counterpanes. They are a people smooth and clean of body, because of so continually washing themselves as they do�. Amongst those people we did not learn that they had any law, nor can they be called Moors nor Jews, and (they are) worse than pagans: because we did not observe that they offered any sacrifice: nor even had they a house of prayer: their manner of living I judge to be Epicurean: their dwellings are in common: and their houses (are) made in the style of huts, but strongly made, and constructed with very large trees, and covered over with palm-leaves, secure against storms and winds: and in some places (they are) of so great breadth and length, that in one single house we found there were 600 souls: and we saw a village of only thirteen houses where there were four thousand souls: every eight or ten years they change their habitations: and when asked why they did so: (they said it was) because of the soil which, from its filthiness, was already unhealthy and corrupted, and that it bred aches in their bodies, which seemed to us a good reason: their riches consist of bird�s plumes of many colours, or of rosaries which they make from fishbones, or of white or green stones which they put in their cheeks and in their lips and ears, and of many other things which we in no wise value: they use no trade, they neither buy nor sell. In fine, they live and are contended with that which nature gives them. The wealth that we enjoy in this our Europe and elsewhere, such as gold, jewels, pearls, and other riches, they hold as nothing; and although they have them in their own lands, they do not labour to obtain them, nor do they value them. They are liberal in giving, for it is rarely they deny you anything: and on the other hand, liberal in asking, when they shew themselves your friends�. When they die, they use divers manners of obsequies, and some they bury with water and victuals at their heads: thinking that they shall have (whereof) to eat: they have not nor do they use ceremonies of torches nor of lamentation. In some other places, they use the most barbarous and inhuman burial, which is that when a suffering or infirm (person) is as it were at the last pass of death, his kinsmen carry him into a large forest, and attach one of those nets, of theirs, in which they sleep, to two trees, and then put him in it, and dance around him for a whole day: and when the night comes on they place at his bolster, water with other victuals, so that he may be able to subsist for four or six days: and then they leave him alone and return to the village: and if the sick man helps himself, and eats, and drinks, and survives, he returns to the village, and his (friends) receive him with ceremony: but few are they who escape: without receiving any further visit they die, and that is their sepulture: and they have many other customs which for prolixity are not related. They use in their sicknesses various forms of medicines, note so different from ours that we marvelled how any one escaped: for many times I saw that with a man sick of fever, when it heightened upon him, they bathed him from head to foot with a large quantity of cold water: then they lit a great fire around him, making him turn and turn again every two hours, until they tired him and left him to sleep, and many were (thus) cured: with this they make use of dieting, for they remain three days without eating, and also of blood-letting, but not from the arm, only from the thighs and the loins and the calf of the leg: also they provoke vomiting with their herbs which are put into the mouth: and they use many other remedies which it would be long to relate: they are much vitiated in the phlegm and in the blood because of their food which consists chiefly of roots of herbs, and fruits and fish: they have no seed of wheat nor other grain: and for their ordinary use and feeding, they have a root of a tree, from which they make flour, tolerably good, and they call it Iuca, and another which they call Cazabi, and another Ignami: they eat little flesh except human flesh: for your Magnificence must know that herein they are so inhuman that they outdo every custom (even) of beasts; for they eat all their enemies whom they kill or capture, as well females as males with so much savagery, that (merely) to relate it appears a horrible thing: how much more so to see it, as, infinite times and in many places, it was my hap to see it: and they wondered to hear us say that we did not eat our enemies: and this your Magnificence may take for certain, that their other barbarous customs are such that expression is too weak for the reality: and as in these four voyages I have seen so many things diverse from our customs, I prepared to write a common-place-book which I name LE QUATTRO GIORNATE: in which I have set down the greater part of the things which I saw, sufficiently in detail, so far as my feeble wit has allowed me: which I have not yet published, because I have so ill a taste for my own things that I do not relish those which I have written, notwithstanding that many encourage me to publish it: therein everything will be seen in detail: so that I shall not enlarge further in this chapter: as in the course of the letter we shall come to many other things which are particular: let this suffice for the general. At this beginning, we saw nothing in the land of much profit, except some show of gold: I believe the cause of it was that we did not know the language: but in so far as concerns the situation and condition of the land, it could not be better: we decided to leave that place, and to go further on, continuously coasting the shore: upon which we made frequent descents, and held converse with a great number of people: and at the end of some days we went into a harbour where we underwent very great danger: and it pleased the Holy Ghost to save us: and it was in this wise. We landed in a harbour, where we found a village built like Venice upon the water: there were about 44 large dwellings in the form of huts erected upon very thick piles, and they had their doors or entrances in the style of drawbridges: and from each house one could pass through all, by means of the drawbridges which stretched from house to house: and when the people thereof had seen us, they appeared to be afraid of us, and immediately drew up all the bridges: and while we were looking at this strange action, we saw coming across the sea about 22 canoes, which are a kind of boats of theirs, constructed from a single tree: which came towards our boats, as they had been surprised by our appearance and clothes, and kept wide of us: and thus remaining, we made signals to them that they should approach us, encouraging them will every token of friendliness: and seeing that they did not come, we went to them, and they did not stay for us, but made to the land, and, by signs, told us to wait, and that they should soon return: and they went to a hill in the background, and did not delay long: when they returned, they led with them 16 of their girls, and entered with these into their canoes, and came to the boats: and in each boat they put 4 of the girls. That we marvelled at this behavior your Magnificence can imagine how much, and they placed themselves
with their canoes among our boats, coming to speak with us: insomuch that we deemed it a mark of friendliness: and while thus engaged, we beheld a great number of people advance swimming towards us across the sea, who came from the houses: and as they were drawing near to us without any apprehension: just then there appeared at the doors of the houses certain old women, uttering very loud cries and tearing their hair to exhibit grief: whereby they made us suspicious, and we each betook ourselves to arms: and instantly the girls whom we had in the boats, threw themselves into the sea, and the men of the canoes drew away from us, and began with their bows to shoot arrows at us: and those who were swimming each carried a lance held, as covertly as they could, beneath the water: so that, recognizing the treachery, we engaged with them, not merely to defend ourselves, but to attack them vigorously, and we overturned with our boats many of their almadie or canoes, for so they call them, we made a slaughter (of them), and they all flung themselves into the water to swim, leaving their canoes abandoned, with considerable loss on their side, they went swimming away to the shore: there died of them about 15 or 20, and many were left wounded: and of ours 5 were wounded, and all, by the grace of God, escaped (death): we captured two of the girls and two men: and we proceeded to their houses, and entered therein, and in them all we found nothing else than two old women and a sick man: we took away from them many things, but of small value: and we would not burn their houses, because it seemed to us (as though that would be) a burden upon our conscience: and we returned to our boats with five prisoners: and betook ourselves to the ships, and put a pair of irons on the feet of each of the captives, except the little girls: and when the night came on, the two girls and one of the men fled away in the most subtle manner possible: and next day we decided to quit that harbour and go further onwards: we proceeded continuously skirting the coast, (until) we had sight of another tribe distant perhaps some 80 leagues from the former tribe: and we found them very different in speech and customs: we resolved to cast anchor, and went ashore with the boats, and we saw on the beach a great number of people amounting probably to 4000 souls: and when we had reached the shore, they did not stay for us, but betook themselves to flight through the forests, abandoning their things: we jumped on land, and took a pathway that led to the forest: and at the distance of a bow-shot we found their tents, where they had made very large fires, and two (of them) were cooking their victuals, and roasting several animals, and fish of many kinds: where we saw that they were roasting a certain animal which seemed to be a serpent, save that it had not wings, and was in its appearance so loathsome that we marvelled much at its savageness: Thus went we on through their houses, or rather tents, and found many of those serpents alive, and they were tied by the feet and had a cord around their snouts, so that they could not open their mouths, as is done (in Europe) with mastiff-dogs so that they may not bite: they were of such savage aspect that none of us dared to take one away, thinking that they were poisonous: they are of the bigness of a kid, and in length an ell and a half: note their feet are long and thick, and armed with big claws: they have a hard skin, and are of various colours: they have the muzzle and face of a serpent: and from their snouts there rises a crest like a saw which extends along the middle of the back as far as the tip of the tail: in fine we deemed them to be serpents and venomous, and (nevertheless, those people) ate them: we found that they made bread out of little fishes which they took from the sea, first boiling them, (then) pounding them, and making thereof a paste, or bread, and they baked them on the embers: thus did they eat them: we tried it, and found that it was good: they had so many other kinds of eatables, and especially of fruits and roots, that it would be a large matter to describe them in detail: and seeing that the people did not return, we decided not to touch nor take away anything of theirs, so as better to reassure them: and we left in the tents for them many of our things, placed where they should see them, and returned by night to our ships: and the next day, when it was light, we saw on the beach an infinite number of people: and we landed: and although they appeared timorous towards us, they took courage nevertheless to hold converse with us, giving us whatever we asked of them: and shewing themselves very friendly towards us, they told us that those were their dwellings, and that they had come hither for the purpose of fishing: and they begged that we would visit their dwellings and villages, because they desired to receive us as friends: and they engaged in such friendship because of the two captured men whom we had with us, as these were their enemies: insomuch that, in view of such importunity on their part, holding a council, we determined that 28 of us Christians in good array should go with them, and in the firm resolve to die if it should be necessary: and after we had been here some three days, we went with them inland: and at three leagues from the coast we came to a village of many people and few houses, for there were no more than nine (of these): where we were received with such and so many barbarous ceremonies that the pen suffices not to write them down: for there were dances, and songs, and lamentations mingled with rejoicing, and great quantities of food: and here we remained the night:� and after having been here that night and half the next day, so great was the number of people who came wondering to behold us that they were beyond counting: and the most aged begged us to go with them to other villages which were further inland, making display of doing us the greatest honour: wherefore we decided to go: and it would be impossible to tell you how much honour they did us: and we went to several villages, so that we were nine days journeying, so that our Christians who had remained with the ships were already apprehensive concerning us: and when we were about 18 leagues in the interior of the land, we resolved to return to the ships: and on our way back, such was the number of people, as well men as women, that came with us as far as the sea, that it was a wondrous thing: and if any of us became weary of the march, they carried us in their nets very refreshingly: and in crossing the rivers, which are many and very large, they passed us over by skilful means so securely that we ran no danger whatever, and many of them came laden with the things which they had given us, which consisted in their sleeping-nets, and very rich feathers, many bows and arrows, innumerable popinjays of divers colours: and others brought with them loads of their household goods, and of animals: but a greater marvel will I tell you, that, when we had to cross a river, he deemed himself lucky who was able to carry us on his back: and when we reached the sea, our boats having arrived, we entered into them: and so great was the struggle which they made to get into our boats, and to come to see our ships, that we marvelled (thereat): and in our boats we took as many of them as we could, and made our way to the ships, and so many (others) came swimming that we found ourselves embarrassed in seeing so many people in the ships, for there were over a thousand persons all naked and unarmed: they were amazed by our (nautical) gear and contrivances, and the size of the ships: and with them there occurred to us a very laughable affair, which was that we decided to fire off some of our great guns, and when the explosion took place, most of them through fear cast themselves (into the sea) to swim, not otherwise than frogs on the margins of a pond, when they see something that frightens them, will jump into the water, just so did those people: and those who remained in the ships were so terrified that we regretted our action: however we reassured them by telling them that with those arms we slew our enemies: and when they had amused themselves in the ships the whole day, we told them to go away because we desired to depart that night, and so separating from us with much friendship and love, they went away to land. Amongst that people and in their land, I knew and beheld so many of their customs and ways of living, that I do not care to enlarge upon them: for Your Magnificence must know that in each of my voyages I have noted the most wonderful things, and I have indited it all in a volume after the manner of a geography: and I entitle it LE QUATTRO GIORNATE: in which work the things are comprised in detail, and as yet there is no copy of it given out, as it is necessary for me to revise it. This land is very populous, and full of inhabitants, and of numberless rivers, (and) animals: few (of which) resemble ours, excepting lions, panthers, stags, pigs, goats, and deer: and even these have some dissimilarities of form: they have no horses nor mules, nor, saving your reverence, asses nor dogs, nor any kind of sheep or oxen: but so numerous are the other animals which they have, and all are savage, and of none do they make use for their service, that they could not be counted. What shall we say of others (such as) birds? which are so numerous, and of so many kinds, and of such various-coloured plumages, that it is a marvel to behold them. The soil is very pleasant and fruitful, full of immense woods and forests: and it is always green, for the foliage never drops off. The fruits are so many that they are numberless and entirely different from ours. This land is within the torrid zone, close to or just under the parallel described by the Tropic
of Cancer: where the pole of the horizon has an elevation of 23 degrees, at the extremity of the second climate. note Many tribes came to see us, and wondered at our faces and our whiteness: and they asked us whence we came: and we gave them to understand that we had come from heaven, and that we were going to see the world, and they believed it. In this land we placed baptismal fonts, and an infinite (number of) people were baptised, and they called us in their language Carabi, which means men of great wisdom. We took our departure from that port: and the province is called Lariab: and we navigated along the coast, always in sight of land, until we had run 870 leagues of it, still going in the direction of the maestrale (north-west) making in our course many halts, and holding intercourse with many peoples: and in several places we obtained gold by barter but not much in quantity, for we had done enough in discovering the land and learning that they had gold. We had now been thirteen months on the voyage: and the vessels and the tackling were already much damaged, and the men worn out by fatigue: we decided by general council to haul our ships on land and examine them for the purpose of stanching leaks, as they made much water, and of caulking and tarring them afresh, and (then) returning towards Spain: and when we came to this determination, we were close to a harbour the best in the world: into which we entered with our vessels: where we found an immense number of people: who received us with much friendliness: and on the shore we made a bastion note with our boats and with barrels and casks, and our artillery, which commanded every point: and our ships having been unloaded and lightened, we drew them upon land, and repaired them in everything that was needful: and the land�s people gave us very great assistance: and continually furnished us with their victuals: so that in this port we tasted little of our own, which suited our game well: for the stock of provisions which we had for our return-passage was little and of sorry kind: where (i.e., there) we remained 37 days: and went many times to their villages: where they paid us the greatest honour: and (now) desiring to depart upon our voyage, they made complaint to us how at certain times of the year there came from over the sea to this their land, a race of people very cruel, and enemies of theirs: and (who) by means of treachery or of violence slew many of them, and ate them: and some they made captives, and carried them away to their houses, or country: and how they could scarcely contrive to defend themselves from them, making signs to us that (those) were an island-people and lived out in the sea about a hundred leagues away: and so piteously did they tell us this that we believed them: and we promised to avenge them of so much wrong: and they remained overjoyed herewith: and many of them offered to come along with us, but we did not wish to take them for many reasons, save that we took seven of them, on condition that they should come (i.e., return home) afterwards in (their own) canoes because we did not desire to be obliged to take them back to their country: and they were contented: and so we departed from those people, leaving them very friendly towards us: and having repaired our ships, and sailing for seven days out to sea between northeast and east: and at the end of the seven days we came upon the islands, which were many, some (of them) inhabited, and others deserted: and we anchored at one of them: where we saw a numerous people who called it Iti: and having manned our boats with strong crews, and (taken ammunition for) three cannon-shots in each, we made for land: where we found (assembled) about 400 men, and many women, and all naked like the former (peoples). They were of good bodily presence, and seemed right warlike men: for they were armed with their weapons, which are bows, arrows, and lances: and most of them had square wooden targets: and bore them in such wise that they did not impede the drawing of the bow: and when we had come with our boats to about a bowshot of the land, they all sprang into the water to shoot their arrows at us and to prevent us from leaping upon shore: and they all had their bodies painted of various colours, and (were) plumed with feathers: and the interpreters who were with us told us that when (those) displayed themselves so painted and plumed, it was to betoken that they wanted to fight: and so much did they persist in preventing us from landing, that we were compelled to play with our artillery: and when they heard the explosion, and saw one of them fall dead, they all drew back to the land: wherefore, forming our council, we resolved that 42 of our men should spring on shore, and, if they waited for us, fight them: thus having leaped to land with our weapons, they advanced towards us, and we fought for about an hour, for we had but little advantage of them, except that our arbalasters and gunners killed some of them, and they wounded certain of our men: and this was because they did not stand to receive us within reach of lance-thrust or sword-blow: and so much vigour did we put forth at last, that we came to sword-play, and when they tasted our weapons, they betook themselves to flight through the mountains and the forests, and left us conquerors of the field with many of them dead and a good number wounded: and for that day we� took no other pains to pursue them, because we were very weary, and we returned to our ships, with so much gladness on the part of the seven men who had come with us that they could not contain themselves (for joy): and when the next day arrived, we beheld coming across the land a great number of people, with signals of battle, continually sounding horns, and various other instruments which they use in their wars: and all (of them) painted and feathered, so that it was a very strange sight to behold them: wherefore all the ships held council, and it was resolved that since this people desired hostility with us, we should proceed to encounter them and try by every means to make them friends: in case they would not have our friendship, that we should treat them as foes, and so many of them as we might be able to capture should all be our slaves: and having armed ourselves as best we could, we advanced towards the shore, and they sought not to hinder us from landing, I believe from fear of the cannons: and we jumped on land, 57 men in four squadrons, each one (consisting of) a captain and his company: and we came to blows with them: and after a long battle (in which) many of them (were) slain, we put them to flight, and pursued them to a village, having made about 250 of them captives, and we burnt the village, and returned to our ships with victory and 250 prisoners, leaving many of them dead and wounded, and of ours there were no more than one killed and 22 wounded, who all escaped (i.e., recovered), God be thanked. We arranged our departure, and seven men, of whom five were wounded, took an island-canoe, and with seven prisoners that we gave them, four women and three men, returned to their (own) country full of gladness, wondering at our strength: and we thereon made sail for Spain with 222 captive slaves: and reached the port of Calis (Cadiz) on the 15th day of October, 1498, where we were well received and sold our slaves. Such is what befell me, most noteworthy, in this my first voyage.
Therefore since Amerigo Vespucci took and sold indigenous people from the “New Land” and sold them into slavery I don’t really like the meaning behind the name. I don’t hate America I just do not like the name and it’s association with slavery. I often say America is named after a slave dealer and the founding fathers of the United States were genocidal to the Native Peoples and 42 out of 56 of them owned slaves of African origin, they sold out the European working class immigrants to the international banking cartel from the get go.
The morals of the majority once educated to the historical significance of the name America will not want their homeland or land of birthright to be named ‘America’. The origins of the name America being a variation of the name Amerigo Vespucci an explorer who captured and sold native inhabitants of the Western Continent into slavery, people he found living here in the West at the time of him supposedly discovering them in their land. The United States government was founded by African slave owning land lords who practiced genocide against Indigenous Peoples, their methods of rule have finally be recognized by an organized majority to be found criminal inhuman and intolerable to the point where we do not desire to be known by that name. Therefore until further notice, until we the majority determine by popular vote any different or more preferable name, the territory and nation, the land area, the mid North Western Continent land mass, the government, previously known as the United States of America will now be known simply as, ‘The New West’ or “The West”.
Origins of the names of all other continents
What if other continents were named after mean slave dealing murdering men? Well then maybe ‘America’ as the name of the Western Continent is not that out of line? The only way to find out is by studying the etymologies, the origins of the names of every continent on Earth, so here goes.
The Weather Theory
Several other theories are connected to the continent’s climate. Some believe that the word “Africa” is a derivation of the Greek word “aphrikē”, which translates as “the land that is free from cold and horror”. Alternatively, it could be a variation of the Roman word “aprica”, meaning sunny; or the Phoenician word “afar”, meaning dust. In reality, Africa’s weather cannot be so easily generalized – after all, the continent comprises 54 countries and countless different habitats, ranging from barren deserts to lush jungles.
However, ancient visitors from the Mediterranean remained in North Africa, where the weather is consistently warm, sunny and dusty.
The Roman Theory
Some believe that the word “Africa” came from the Romans, who named the land they discovered on the opposite side of the Mediterranean after a Berber tribe living in the Carthage area (now modern-day Tunisia). Different sources give different versions of the tribe’s name, but the most popular is Afri. It is thought that the Romans called the region Afri-terra, meaning “the land of the Afri”. Later, this could have become contracted to form the single word “Africa”.
Alternatively, some historians suggest that the suffix “-ica” could also have been used to mean “the land of the Afri”, in much the same way that Celtica (a region of modern-day France) was named after the Celtae, or Celts that lived there. It is also possible that the name was a Roman misinterpretation of the Berber’s own name for the place in which they lived. The Berber word “ifri” means cave, and could refer to the place of the cave-dwellers.
All of these theories are lent weight by the fact that the name “Africa” has been in use since Roman times, although initially it only referred to North Africa.
The Phoenician Theory
Others believe that the name “Africa” was derived from two Phoenician words, “friqi” and “pharika.” Thought to translate as corn and fruit, the assumption is that the Phoenicians christened Africa as “the land of corn and fruit.” This theory does make some sense – after all, the Phoenicians were an ancient people who inhabited the city-states on the east coast of the Mediterranean (what we now know as Syria, Lebanon, and Israel). They were adept seamen and prolific traders and would have crossed the sea to trade with their ancient Egyptian neighbors.
The fertile Nile Valley was once known as the breadbasket of Africa—a place with more than its fair share of fruit and corn.
Antarctica Antarctica comes from the Greek word “antarktike,” which literally means “opposite to the north.” The continent is, of course, home to the southernmost point on Earth. John George Bartholomew, a Scottish cartographer, is believed to be the first person to use “Antartica” to refer to the continent. However, the name was used for a different place by the French before this. In the 1500s, they held a colony in Brazil below the equator which they named France Antartique.
Asia The name Asia is ancient, and its origin has been variously explained. The Greeks used it to designate the lands situated to the east of their homeland. It is believed that the name may be derived from the Assyrian word asu, meaning “east.” Another possible explanation is that it was originally a local name given to the plains of Ephesus, which ancient Greeks and Romans extended to refer first to Anatolia (contemporary Asia Minor, which is the western extreme of mainland Asia), and then to the known world east of the Mediterranean Sea. When Western explorers reached South and East Asia in early modern times, they extended that label to the whole of the immense landmass.
The name Australia derives from Latin australis meaning southern, and dates back to 2nd century legends of an “unknown southern land” (that is terra australis incognita). The explorer Matthew Flinders named the land Terra Australis, which was later abbreviated to the current form. Previously, when the Dutch explored the area they named it Nova Hollandicus or New Holland.
Flinders later renamed the land Australia in a chart compiled in 1804 whilst he was held prisoner by the French in Mauritius. When he returned to England and published his works in 1814 he was forced to change the name to Terra Australis by the British Admiralty. Governor Macquarie of New South Wales became aware of Flinders’ preference for the name Australia and used it in his dispatches to England. In 1824 the British Admiralty finally accepted that the continent should be known officially as Australia.
Europe In classical Greek mythology, Europa (Ancient Greek: Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē) was a Phoenician princess. The word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς (eurús), “wide, broad” and ὤψ (ōps, gen. ὠπός, ōpós) “eye, face, countenance”, hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean “wide-gazing” or “broad of aspect”. Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for “west”, this being either Akkadian erebu meaning “to go down, set” (said of the sun) or Phoenician ‘ereb “evening, west”, which is at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma’arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University’s Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of “night, [the country of] sunset”, in opposition to Asu “[the country of] sunrise”, i.e. Asia. The same naming motive according to “cartographic convention” appears in Greek Ἀνατολή (Anatolḗ “[sun] rise”, “east”, hence Anatolia). Martin Litchfield West stated that “phonologically, the match between Europa’s name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor.” Next to these hypotheses there is also a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning “darkness”, which also produced Greek Erebus.
Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu (歐洲/欧洲); a similar Chinese-derived term Ōshū (欧州) is also sometimes used in Japanese such as in the Japanese name of the European Union, Ōshū Rengō (欧州連合), despite the katakana Yōroppa (ヨーロッパ) being more commonly used. In some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan (“land of the Franks”) is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa.
Therefore no other continent besides “America” is named after a ruthless greedy individual human, a name that people are trained like sheep to have pride in and defend being brainwashed into forsaking any concept of dignity and human compassion sacrificing all for a niche in a greedy sadomasochist society no more intelligent or compassionate than lower life forms following the laws of biological closed system dominant species experiments with fruit flies even as lowly as mold in Petri dishes. Yes some of our industry and technology increases our comfort and lessens our input of work, yet these things also increase survivability and population growth which in turn leads to an even greater less natural depletion and pollution of resources necessary for comfortable living, leading to quicker collapse of the closed system that provides us life which is counter intuitive, opposite intelligent.
So the point of this all is the fact the all other continents have decent names that are not related to conquistador slave dealers. I would hope the readers will consider calling our Nation the New West and our Continent the West. The West is already used in many conversations by many people when talking about Western Europe and North America so it would not be that great of a change or undertaking.
When Patrick Henry recognized the power grab that was going on and the hypocrisy of a rather small group of rich old white men sitting in a room and writing a constitution with the Preamble starting with, “We the People”, it is quite well documented that Mr. Henry, a states rights person rather than a federalist did utter the words, “I smell a rat” in response to what he observed happening.
I have often written and said the founding fathers were elite white male landlords who treated women like property, owned African ‘American’ slaves and were genocidal to the Native Peoples that sold working class European immigrants off to the international banker cartel from the get go.
It is my humble opinion that we need to change the name of the continent and the name of our nation because the continent was named after a slave trader and 41 out of 57 of the signers of the declaration of independence held slaves at least at one time in their lives. http://www.mrheintz.com/how-many-signers-of-the-declaration-of-independence-owned-slaves.html
Those founding fathers in all the glory we are trained to give them did not and do not represent a majority mandate ratified legitimate constitutional republic. Even Trump being selected to be president by the Electoral College after he lost the popular vote by close to 3 million is not surprising considering that George Washington was elected by less than 1.8% of the people. People who they determined to be citizens, who knows how many Natives and poor people were not counted or were the number of citizens inflated to gain representation we will never know. How has this dysfunctional war criminal nation lasted as long as it has without a full blown revolution, I don’t understand.
1788–89 United States presidential election
Source: U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 11, 2006).
(a) Only six of the 11 states eligible to cast electoral votes chose electors by any form of popular vote.
(b) Less than 1.8% of the population voted: the 1790 Census would count a total population of 3.0 million with a free population of 2.4 million and 600,000 slaves in those states casting electoral votes.
(c) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.
The truth here is in plane sight yet we are trained to believe the founding fathers were great wonderful heroes. I do not think this misplaced loyalty is some freak of nature, loyalty has been sought by so called leaders for thousands of years until it is a genetic reinforcement of a group survival mechanism gone wrong. Humans organized around a king or even a tribal elder could over take even the strongest most able talented cunning individual. Thus genes of independent thinking individuals have been selected out of our gene pool because loyalty gives higher group survival rates than a creative population capable of critical thinking. This is not all cut and dry and there definitely are not two simple basic groups here, it is just an overall tendency for people to choose loyalty over deep independent critical reasoning. One of my favorite historical individuals is Giordano Bruno who believed in a heliocentric solar system and that stars were distant suns. Giordano also held the belief that the universe was infinite and held pantheistic beliefs that threatened the theocratic leadership and power base of the day, so they burned him at the stake: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giordano_Bruno Beside actual long term genetic manipulation there is societal manipulation which also reinforces loyalty pride and patriotism regardless of the known facts. Yes facts, they are sort of a slippery thing for humans. Throughout history facts are declared by the winners of wars and by people in places of power and wealth to the point where their will regardless of truth of the matter becomes factual. The Salem witch trials are a good ‘New World’ example where mainly widows who possessed land and wealth of their dead husband were accused of witchcraft, killed and robbed of their land and wealth. Funny how lies become truths when wealth and power is at stake.
Vote Democrat or Republican, history proves either way you loose.
We know that America is named after a Amerigo Vespucci a slave dealer who took 209 South American indigenous people to Spain and sold them. Founding fathers were white male land lord African ‘American’ slave holders who practiced genocide against the natives. So you have patriotic pride because you think you are white? Well they sold the European working class off to the international bankers from the get go. The US constitution was never meant to apply to all humans within it borders it is only for the few, the elite, a self entitled class of people that became exactly what their constitution forbids a class given a title of nobility by what is supposed to be our government.
So let’s bring this a little more up to date to explain why to this day if you vote democrat or republican you are voting against your own best interests and for a caste system, you are voting to be ruled by a class of, a group of people who are above the law. Let’s start out with the Presidency of Jimmy Carter and work our way from there to this 2018 midterm election.
I know there were small problems and scandals with Jimmy Carter’s Presidency yet I believe he is a good honest man who tried to do right by us all. He was not very successful but he was ahead of his time and his dedicated voluntarism and work for peace proves that he is a good man.
Next we had Ronald Reagan who Made a deal with Iranian College Students and the Ayatollah to hold the hostages until after he became president? On January 19, 1981, the US and Iran signed the Algiers Accords. https://sandiegofreepress.org/2017/04/ronald-reagan-colluded-with-a-foreign-government/#.W9-1A5NKiM8 Reagan allowed tax breaks for moving US companies over seas and started a policy of US industrial and manufacturing exodus, https://www.nytimes.com/1985/08/04/business/reagan-s-hidden-industrial-policy.html . https://www.businessinsider.com/what-happened-to-american-jobs-in-the-80s-2017-7 , https://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-l-borosage/the-reagan-ruins_b_816820.html ,
Reagan busted the Air Traffic Controllers Union and was hostile to all trade unions as president of the United States. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/03/opinion/reagan-vs-patco-the-strike-that-busted-unions.html Sold weapons to Iran which was our enemy at the time. Gave tax breaks to the wealthy in what was called the trickle down theory. Reagan was no friend to the poor and working class people who voted for him.
Republican George Bush Sr. bailed out his kids and privilaged elite who get the lion’s share of free stuff, with 132 billion in tax payer money in the savings and loan scandal https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis. Bush Sr. pretty much told Saddam it was okay for him go into Kuwait and then blackmailed him so his defense contractor buddies could make billions in war profiteering.https://foreignpolicy.com/2011/01/09/wikileaks-april-glaspie-and-saddam-hussein/
Democrat Bill Clinton was president during the repeal of the Glass Steagull act which de-regulated bankers to increase their profits through unethical investment scams and eventually the banks had to be “bailed out”. Clinton championed NAFTA an international corporate give away. You can thank Bill Clinton for the so called Crime Bill and The Private Prisons for Profit industry.
Then we have Republican George Bush Jr. Whose Project for a New American Century no doubt planned for a “New Pearl Horbor” and sure enough then came the 9-11 attacks, some people knew the attack was going to happen in advance. http://www.911hardfacts.com/report_04.htm Then they used 9-11 as a pretense to invade Iraq transferring many billions of dollars in war profiteering to the elite war profiteering club. At a cost of over 1.7 trillion dollars to tax payers with billions in profits going to weapons dealers and war profiteers
Next we had President Obama who as a Senator championed the bail out of the bankers at a cost to tax payers of 700 billion dollars which they said was all paid back but during that time period the Federal Reserve and the Bank For International Settlements added about 15 trillion in new money to the money supply. Obama did not get us out of any of the Bush wars. Iraq or Afghanistan and expanded the wars into Somalia https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/27/us/politics/obama-expands-war-with-al-qaeda-to-include-shabab-in-somalia.html resumed Bombing in Libya, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libya%E2%80%93United_States_relations , and Syria https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/12/29/obama-never-understood-how-history-works/ Obama’s Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is more private healthcare insurance for profit instead of a universal national medicare like healthcare for all program the is necessary for us to be a civilized humane nation.
And now we have Trump who I don’t even want to talk about here because I have already drafting an impeach Trump Resolution because he is even more over the top criminal than any of the previous presidents. So when you get the picture, when you really study the history of our government it has been the crookedest greediest nasty lying fiasco in the history of humanity. That is way I believe we need to replace the failed representative constitutional republic with a truly democratic form of government with national people’s referendum rights and meaningful votes through direct participatory democracy.
US Constitution never ratified by republican or democratic standards
13 original Colonies States:
Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Writers and signers of the Constitution
Signers of the Constitution were chosen by the governors not the people: “Of the 74 deputies chosen by the state legislatures, only 55 took part in the proceedings; of these, 39 signed the Constitution.” , https://www.britannica.com/event/Constitutional-Convention
This study is to verify the fact that the United States constitution has never been ratified in accordance with republican nor democratic principles and remains a sort of royal aristocracy to this day. I share the dates and number of delegates that ratified that US Constitution for each state, the recorded population near the time of ratification according to the 1790 Census which may or may not have included Native Americans in each state territory nor African American slaves, we know that women were counted more as property than as citizens, so we must realize there are problems with the accuracy of the population of these colony states. None the less this study demonstrates that an privileged minority of men related to European royal families, a comparatively small group of land owning men formed the United States without ever even asking for the consent of those to be governed by their elite privileged plot to own and profit off of the vast majority of residents of the territory they declared the United State of America. The population of each state is determined by the mentioned Census of which the data is in the public domain and available with sources here at this Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census Notice the evidence of racism and misogyny within the table and think that this is what the powers of the not so United States government are based upon to this very day.
The 1787-1790 Privileged Ratification Process
Delegates had been appointed by the original colony states to attend the Constitutional Convention, but only 55 were able to be there. Rhode Island was the only state to not send any delegates at all.
How were the signers of the so called ratification of the US Constitution chosen? http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/convention1787.html
When where and how many people signed on to ratification of the US Constitution:
On this day (December 7th) in 1787, Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, doing so by a unanimous vote. …. In Dover, Delaware, the U.S. Constitution is unanimously ratified by all 30 delegates to the Delaware Constitutional Convention, making Delaware the first state of the modern United States. Less than four months ..
The census of 1890 shows there were about 59,094 citizens of Deleware at that time and we wonder how African slaves and Native Americans were or were not counted so the 30 who decided for the rest can be considered nothing else than members of a new old country aristocracy of the day.
On this day December 12, in 1787, Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the Constitution, by a vote of 46-23. Pennsylvania was also the first large state to ratify the nation’s founding legal document. https://www.politico.com/story/2007/12/pennsylvania-ratifies-us-constitution-on-dec-12-1787-007315. The estimated population total was 434,373 people.
On December 18, 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution. The minutes of the ratification convention, imaged and transcribed in full below, document the quick work of the delegates. The absence of debate and the ready adoption of the proposed federal charter reflect the people of New Jersey’s dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation. The delegates required only six days to establish rules, review the document, and complete their deliberations. On the seventh day, the delegates present unanimously approved the Constitution for the State of New Jersey. Of the thirty-nine elected to represent the thirteen New Jersey counties existing at that time, all but Samuel Dick of Salem County attended. The 1790 Census lists the population at 184,139, so 38 males made the decision to become subjects of the United States for over 184,139 people.
Georgia called a special convention in Augusta to consider the proposed charter. The delegates voted unanimously to ratify the new U.S. Constitution, the fourth state to do so, on January 2, 1788, 26 delegates all voted to ratify. I have found nothing concerning how these delegates were chosen. Today in Georgia History. https://www.todayingeorgiahistory.org/content/georgia-ratifies-us-constitution , https://www.usconstitution.net/rat_ga.html The 1790 Census figured Georgia’s population to be 82,548.
With such factors in mind, Oliver Ellsworth addressed Connecticut’s ratifying convention in Hartford on January 4, 1788. He opened the debates by arguing that the Union was necessary for mutual defense against outside aggressors, to maintain peace among the states themselves, and to promote more favorable trade and economic conditions at home as well as abroad. Days later, on January 9, by a vote of 128–40, Connecticut ratified the Constitution of the United States. https://connecticuthistory.org/connecticut-ratifies-us-constitution-today-in-history/ From the 1790 US Census Wikipedia article the population of Connecticut was: 237,946. The following link states that the Delegates to the state’s ratification convention were somehow elected at a meeting https://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/connecticut-elects-168-delegates-for-state-conventioin/
Massachusetts ratified the United States Constitution on February 6, 1788, by a vote of 187 to 168. https://www.masshist.org/objects/cabinet/february2003/february2003.htm The 1790 Census listed the population of Massachusetts at 378,787. 370 delegates had been elected on October 25, 1787, and when the final vote was taken on February 3, 355 registered their vote. https://teachingamericanhistory.org/resources/ratification/massachusetts/
Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Maryland, April 28, 1788. Maryland was the seventh state to do so. Maryland’s ratification message was very short and to the point. The following text is taken from the Library of Congress’s copy of Elliot’s Debates. From the following link I counted 63 delegates: https://www.usconstitution.net/rat_md.html It appears their decision was unanimous. I found no information as to how the delegates were elected or selected. The population of Maryland by the 1790 Census was: 319,728.
The Constitution of 1778 created strict property requirements for the franchise. White men had to possess a significant amount of property to vote, and had to own even more property to be allowed to run for political office. In fact, these property requirements were so high that 90 percent of all white adults were prevented from running for political office. On May 23, 1788, South Carolina ratified the United States Constitution. This necessitated a new constitution. https://constitutingamerica.org/south-carolina-admitted-1788-eighth-state-ratify-us-constitution-guest-essayist-charles-f-vaughan/ In January 1788 David Ramsay predicted that the Constitution would be “accepted by a very great majority.” Indeed, in the final ratification vote, Federalists (supporters of ratification) routed their Anti-Federalist opponents by more than a two-to-one margin, 149 to 73. http://www.scencyclopedia.org/sce/entries/ratification-of-the-u-s-constitution/ By the 1790 Census the population of South Carolina was: 393,751 I can find nothing about how South Carolina elected or selected the ratification delegates.
New Hampshire ratifies U.S. Constitution, June 21, 1788. New Hampshire’s lawmakers divided 57-47 over ratification. Once the Congress of the Confederation received word of the vote, it set a timetable for the start of operations under the new Constitution. The 1790 Census puts the population of New Hampshire at 141,885. Interesting that new Hampshire’s legislature ratified the US Constitution rather than appointed or somehow elected selected delegates. NH was the ninth state to ratify and it was previously decided that the ratification by nine states would be required for the US Constitution to go into affect.
On June 25, four days after New Hampshire had acted, the Commonwealth of Virginia (No. 10) voted 89-79 for ratification. New York (No. 11) voted 30-27 the day after. The remaining two of the original 13 — North Carolina (194-77) and Rhode Island (3 4-32) waited until Nov. 21, 1789, and May 29, 1790, respectively, to ratify. Rhode Islanders opposed federal control of currency and were critical of the compromise over slavery. A majority resisted ratifying until the federal government threatened to sever commercial relations with the state. https://www.politico.com/story/2017/06/21/new-hampshire-ratifies-us-constitution-june-21-1788-239667 https://www.fsp.org/ratification-new-hampshire/
Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Virginia; June 26, 1788. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/ratva.asp A total of 170 delegates were elected. Of these, 168 voted on ratification: 89 for, 79 against. The delegates included representatives from modern-day Kentucky and West Virginia, which were part of Virginia at the time. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Ratifying_Convention The population of Virginia wzs determined to be 747,610 according to the 1790 Census and was the most populated state at the time.
New York Ratifies the Constitution. On July 26, 1788 New York, by a vote of 30-27, became the 11th state to ratify the Constitution. The New York Ratifying Convention, having approved the Constitution, also voted unanimously to prepare a circular letter to the other states, asking them to support a second general convention to consider amendments to the Constitution. http://blog.nyhistory.org/ontd-new-yorks-ratification-of-the-constitution/ The population of New York was 340,120 according to the 1790 Census.
Soon after assembling, it was ascertained that the Anti-Federalists were in the majority. Willie Jones was the recognized leader of that division of the delegates and had the convention in his grasp from beginning to end. Notwithstanding the eloquence of Davie and the logic of James Iredell in advocacy of the constitution, when the vote was taken, the constitution was rejected by a vote of 84 to 184. North Carolina thus refused to enter the union and took no part in the election of George Washington as president in the fall of 1788. https://www.accessible-archives.com/2013/11/north-carolina-ratified-the-constitution/
The next year, however, another convention at Fayetteville ratified the Constitution, and North Carolina became a member of the Federal union. On November 21, 1789, North Carolina ratified the Constitution to become the twelfth state in the Union. The vote came approximately two hundred years after the first white settlers arrived on the fertile Atlantic coastal plain. The 1790 Census recorded the North Carolina population at 393,751 people.
Rhode Island ratifies Constitution, May 29, 1790. On this day in 1790, Rhode Island became the 13th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, thereby becoming the last of the original founding colonies to enter the Union. https://www.politico.com/story/2014/05/this-day-in-politics-107177 After coercion by the States who did ratify the US Constitution, by what I can tell, the Rhode Island Assembly did choose under duress to ratify the US Constitution to become the last of the original 13 states to do so. The 1790 Census states the Rhode Island population at: 68,825 I have found no information concerning the number of people in the Assembly nor a record of the number of yes or no votes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification_of_the_United_States_Constitution_by_Rhode_Island
The reason I added this historical US Constitutional ratification information is to make it absolutely certain to the readers that the US Constitution was never ratified in the modern sense which would include a national referendum process. Since this history provides proof that an unconstitutional American royal privileged aristocracy built themselves a government by and for rich people, by rich people and of rich people, they developed a government where an elite minority would maintain control and even ownership over the majority.
Are all the US Presidents Related to a few European Royal Families?
Whether or not or how closely they US presidents are or are not related is secondary to the number of them that believed or believe they are of a royal class of people that are above others and worthy of ruling over rather than serving and working within humanity, they are members of an aristocracy.
Plutocracy; 1: government by the wealthy
2: a controlling class of the wealthy
Did You Know?
Ploutos was Greek for “wealth”, and Plouton, or Pluto, was one of the names used for the Greek god of the underworld, where all the earth’s mineral wealth was stored. So a plutocracy governs or wields power through its money. The economic growth in the U.S. in the late 19th century produced a group of enormously wealthy plutocrats. Huge companies like John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil gained serious political power, and Rockefeller was able to influence lawmakers in states where his businesses operated. For this reason, it was said in 1905 that Ohio and New Jersey were plutocracies, not democracies.
I have studied the relationship between worker and owner investors for quite a few years. I began serious reading and learning about this dynamic of human culture, this war between classes when I was a union steward. Through those years I learned about the Industrial Workers of the World. I learned about Eugene Debbs, Big Bill Haywood, the coal mine strikes and the miners striking in Colorado and Montana. I learned about the fact that there were investors that supplied money and got a cut of the profits, some without even contributing the mental work of decision making. I discovered that upper management’s only responsibility is to delegate authority to insure the largest possible return on the investor’s money. I was involve in engineering and I learned about economic principles in college. Basically there are professionals that do the thinking which is work, there are buyers and sellers which is definitely mind and communication work but the people that get the lion’s share of the profits with little to nothing at risk, contribute nothing but money which they did not obtain from the fruits of their labors but through their nobility. I often wondered about this arrangement. One has to think, when a company buys equipment to build and sell a product they purchase supplies, raw materials and equipment that are in turn produced by workers, money itself produces nothing. So it is fact that all human material wealth and even services originate from nature’s raw materials and goods and services provided by the working class; yet at this time in the United States, 2018, three people have more wealth than the poorest half of the population, https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/jul/19/bernie-sanders/bernie-sanders-bill-gates-jeff-bezos-warren-buffet/.
So while I studied class warfare on my own and and learned a lot from many different sources, I recently came across a new video series called Plutocracy produced by Scott Noble of Metanoia Films. I contacted them and they agreed to supply me with the scripts of the five video series to save me from having to repeatedly watch and write down all the information within the series about the relationship between working class people and capitalist elites, a relationship that can be rightfully labeled nothing less than class warfare. I will name a few people and describe a few battles to help express the message of this book; yet all and all if you doubt what I have written here or if you are interested in learning more about the evil greedy criminal history of capitalism in the United States, I recommend you watch the Plutocracy series which for now remains free on a donation basis. I live very simply on very little money yet I was so impressed with the information in the series that I did make a small donation.
Some people tell us we need to vote and even give them money to, “save our democarcy”. Others are quick to tell us we, the United States is not a democracy, it is a republic. So, often when I desire an acceptable definition of a word rather than a meaning I derive myself; I look up the word in question in several dictionaries, I had two different dictionaries on hand when I wrote before the Internet. So here are synonyms for democracy, democrat, republic and republican:
Democracy synonyms: equality, freedom justice, commonwealth, egalitarianism, emancipation. Democrat: lawmaker, leader, legislator, president, boss, chieftain, senator.
Republic synonyms: commonwealth, self-government, constitutional government, democratic state, representative government. Republican: lawmaker, leader, legislator, president, boss, chieftain. https://www.thesaurus.com/
This seems so simple and some readers my think by reviewing these seemingly simple things we learned in grade school are belittling the readers, no. I had to review these words as a young adult and I continue to do so. It had been my opinion that a republic gives supreme power to elected officials, which in my lifetime has proven true, but from the time of Lincoln on through the early 1900s the republican party was for abolition of slavery and pro unions for the working class, standing up to the robber barons, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie and a few others. Now the Republican party is bought off by the corporations and the Democratic party is not far behind. That is why I have been know to identify with and say I am an anarchist. Some people tell me that I should not say that because they are convinced that anarchy means calling for and being active in the violent overthrow and destruction of all government. Just like democracy and republic, anarchy is not a simple word and has many different meanings to many people. My personal meaning of anarchy is: the United States government is illegitimate because it does not adhere to the Constitution that is the basis of it’s authority, all humans male, female, of every race, rich or poor, are of far more equal worth and deserving of dignity than the current hierarchical plutocratic government allows. I am a non violent anarchist and desire to help facilitate the changes I desire using the least violent means possible, knowing that once there is a ‘we’ and we become the majority we will have to restrain the people who stand in the way of out progress and they will accuse us of violence when trying to force an end of their violence. There are words for the logical fallacy their side presents, one term is ‘Freudian Projection’, another less common term is ‘Tu Quoque’ meaning ‘you also’ both describe accusing others of what oneself is doing, a propaganda technique often used by Trump and others like him.
Okay, now back to the case for labeling the United States Government a ‘Plutocarcy’. When you consider that when the fledgling United States ran out of money and made a deal with the devil on February 25, 1791 by giving a 20 year charter to, well just try and search the Internet for, “who owned the First Bank of the United States?”. Here is but a clue but even after 229 years the true ownership of this bank is being kept quite secretive:
The Bank met with considerable controversy. Agrarian interests were opposed to the Bank on the grounds that they feared it would favor commercial and industrial interests over their own, and that it would promote the use of paper currency at the expense of gold and silver specie (Kidwell, 54). Ownership of the Bank was also an issue. By the time the Bank’s charter was up for renewal in 1811, about 70 percent of its stock was owned by foreigners. Although foreign stock had no voting power to influence the Bank’s operations, outstanding shares carried an 8.4 percent dividend. Another twenty year charter, it was argued, would result in about $12 million in already scarce gold and silver being exported to the bank’s foreign owners (Hixson, 115). http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/essays/general/a-brief-history-of-central-banking/central-banking-in-the-united-states.php
This Plutocracy chapter and the previous, The Royal History of Monetary Order, chapter sort of over lap but this information on banking here has the purpose of helping the reader understand my belief that the United States has been a plutocracy from every near the beginning. There is another hint to who owned this bank. The Revolutionary War officially ended with the signing of the 1783 signing of the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The Fourth Article of the Treaty is short and sweet, “ Article 4th:
It is agreed that Creditors on either Side shall meet with no lawful Impediment to the Recovery of the full Value in Sterling Money of all bona fide Debts heretofore contracted.” Notice these people don’t even have to say who they are to get paid back. What if they loaned out paper and they want the loans paid back in specie, meaning metal with tangible value rather than paper receipts? Who at the time had so much power and wealth? So in all reality the United States government is just an offshoot, a division of their business, that is why the United States form of government is accurately defined as a plutocracy, they subjugate themselves willingly for their individual elevated privileged positions in the hierarchy, they are owned by the private bankers of the world, just like their recent European and English ancestors. Although these owners are not named, the only entity that had the power and wealth to borrow money to the warring parties of Great Britain and the newly formed colonies was most likely the Vatican although I have no direct proof, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/22/books/review/gods-bankers-by-gerald-posner.html , https://www.robeco.com/docm/docu-summer-read-a-concise-financial-history-of-europe.pdf , https://www.pbs.org/empires/medici/medici/bankers.html The Rothschild banking empire does not seem to have been established enough by 1776. Distractors and shills for the private international banking cartel are welcome to call this all an unfounded conspiracy theory, inquiring minds would like to know. Here is an article referring to a book on the subject titled, Jewish Bankers and the Holy See from the Thirteenth to the Seventeenth Century (Littman Library of Jewish Civilization) https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/.premium-1682-pope-closes-jewish-banks-in-rome-1.5321588
There were several rebellions through the early history of the United States yet all of them were suppressed, so wherever the corporate business owner money came from it was accepted by the thugs who did the beating and the killing of workers well enough to win the day. The US government was able to tax it’s citizenry, have the backing of the international banking cartel and hold the reigns.
Shays rebellion August 31, 1786 – June 1787 The United States Government taxed the farmers, many who were soldiers in the Revolutionary war, at a greater rate that they were taxed by Great Britain. Their farms were being repossessed and confiscated. So they tried to rebel and defend themselves against the government they fought to bring to power. They lost but were eventually pardoned, https://www.history.com/topics/early-us/shays-rebellion .
Whiskey Rebellion 1791 and ending in 1794 Again the United States Government had to raise money to pay back money they borrowed to fight the revolutionary war and put a tax on whiskey. The farmers thought they fought the war to end being taxed by Great Britain, little did they know the United States Government would tax them as well, the rebels eventually gave in, after signing the Treaty of Paris in 1783 the United States had better credit than the farmer citizens. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whiskey_Rebellion
Fries Rebellion during 1799 and 1800
Haymarket Square May 4, 1886
Monongah mining disaster, Fairmount mine corporation December 6, 1907
Ludlow massacre 1914
Blair Mountain Aug 25, 1921 – Sep 2, 1921 Red Neck Army
William H. “Bill” Blizzard (September 19, 1892 – July 1, 1958)
Memorial Day Massacre: The symbolic end to American mass labor militancy occurred on May 30th of 1937. After Republic Steel refused to sign a contract with with the Steel Workers Organizing Committee, hundreds of workers and sympathizers organized a peaceful picnic. Chicago police responded by firing into the crowd. The slaughter became known as the Memorial Day massacre.
Dorothy Day, the leader of the Catholic workers movement, was present. “On Memorial Day, 1937,” she wrote, “police opened fire on a parade of striking steel workers and their families at the gate of the Republic Steel Company, in South Chicago. Fifty people were shot, of whom 10 later died; 100 others were beaten with clubs.”
Racism used to divide and conquer
If the leaders of the United States were not racists and did not use racism as a method to divide and conquer the majority, racism would not exist as it does in this country to this very day.
Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857: is a supreme court case that justified and upheld legalized slavery and racism using their Constitution. This is so evil that no half sane sentient sapient being of any race should admit to being a citizen of a state, associated with a national government that would allow such a decision to stand as law even for a single day. Dred Scott v. Sandford. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393 (1857)
Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 19 How. 393 393 (1856)
Scott v. Sandford 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393
1. Upon a writ of error to a Circuit Court of the United States, the transcript of the record of all the proceedings in the case is brought before the court, and is open to inspection and revision.
2. When a plea to the jurisdiction, in abatement, is overruled by the court upon demurrer, and the defendant pleads in bar, and upon these pleas the final judgment of the court is in his favor — if the plaintiff brings a writ of error, the judgment of the court upon the plea in abatement is before this court, although it was in favor of the plaintiff — and if the court erred in overruling it, the judgment must be reversed, and a mandate issued to the Circuit Court to dismiss the case for want of jurisdiction.
3. In the Circuit Courts of the United States, the record must show that the case is one in which, by the Constitution and laws of the United States, the court had jurisdiction — and if this does not appear, and the judgment must be reversed by this court — and the parties cannot be consent waive the objection to the jurisdiction of the Circuit Court.
4. A free negro of the African race, whose ancestors were brought to this country and sold as slaves, is not a “citizen” within the meaning of the Constitution of the United States.
5. When the Constitution was adopted, they were not regarded in any of the States as members of the community which constituted the State, and were not numbered among its “people or citizens.” Consequently, the special rights and immunities guarantied to citizens do not apply to them. And not being “citizens” within the meaning of the Constitution, they are not entitled to sue in that character in a court of the United States, and the Circuit Court has not jurisdiction in such a suit.
6. The only two clauses in the Constitution which point to this race treat them as persons whom it was morally lawfully to deal in as articles of property and to hold as slaves.
7. Since the adoption of the Constitution of the United States, no State can by any subsequent law make a foreigner or any other description of persons citizens of
Page 60 U. S. 394
the United States, nor entitle them to the rights and privileges secured to citizens by that instrument.
8. A State, by its laws passed since the adoption of the Constitution, may put a foreigner or any other description of persons upon a footing with its own citizens as to all the rights and privileges enjoyed by them within its dominion and by its laws. But that will not make him a citizen of the United States, nor entitle him to sue in its courts, nor to any of the privileges and immunities of a citizen in another State.
9. The change in public opinion and feeling in relation to the African race which has taken place since the adoption of the Constitution cannot change its construction and meaning, and it must be construed and administered now according to its true meaning and intention when it was formed and adopted.
10. The plaintiff having admitted, by his demurrer to the plea in abatement, that his ancestors were imported from Africa and sold as slaves, he is not a citizen of the State of Missouri according to the Constitution of the United States, and was not entitled to sue in that character in the Circuit Court.
11. This being the case, the judgment of the court below in favor of the plaintiff on the plea in abatement was erroneous.
1. But if the plea in abatement is not brought up by this writ of error, the objection to the citizenship of the plaintiff is still apparent on the record, as he himself, in making out his case, states that he is of African descent, was born a slave, and claims that he and his family became entitled to freedom by being taken by their owner to reside in a Territory where slavery is prohibited by act of Congress, and that, in addition to this claim, he himself became entitled to freedom by being taken to Rock Island, in the State of Illinois, and being free when he was brought back to Missouri, he was, by the laws of that State, a citizen.
2. If, therefore, the facts he states do not give him or his family a right to freedom, the plaintiff is still a slave, and not entitled to sue as a “citizen,” and the judgment of the Circuit Court was erroneous on that ground also, without any reference to the plea in abatement.
3. The Circuit Court can give no judgment for plaintiff or defendant in a case where it has not jurisdiction, no matter whether there be a plea in abatement or not. And unless it appears upon the face of the record, when brought here by writ of error, that the Circuit Court had jurisdiction, the judgment must be reversed.
The case of Capron v. Van Noorden, 2 Cranch 126, examined, and the principles thereby decided reaffirmed.
4. When the record, as brought here by writ of error, does not show that the Circuit Court had jurisdiction, this court has jurisdiction to review and correct the error like any other error in the court below. It does not and cannot dismiss the case for want of jurisdiction here, for that would leave the erroneous judgment of the court below in full force, and the party injured without remedy. But it must reverse the judgment and, as in any other case of reversal, send a mandate to the Circuit Court to conform its judgment to the opinion of this court.
5. The difference of the jurisdiction in this court in the cases of writs of error to State courts and to Circuit Courts of the United States pointed out, and the mistakes made as to the jurisdiction of this court in the latter case by confounding it with its limited jurisdiction in the former.
6. If the court reverses a judgment upon the ground that it appears by a particular part of the record that the Circuit Court had not jurisdiction, it does not take away the jurisdiction of this court to examine into and correct, by a reversal of the judgment, any other errors, either as to the jurisdiction or any other matter, where it appears from other parts of the record that the Circuit Court had fallen into error. On the contrary, it is the daily and familiar practice of this court to reverse on several grounds where more than one error appears to have been committed. And the error of a Circuit Court in its jurisdiction
Page 60 U. S. 395
stands on the same ground, and is to be treated in the same manner as any other error upon whish its judgment is founded.
7. The decision, therefore, that the judgment of the Circuit Court upon the plea in abatement is erroneous is no reason why the alleged error apparent in the exception should not also be examined, and the judgment reversed on that ground also, if it discloses a want of jurisdiction in the Circuit Court.
8. It is often the duty of this court, after having decided that a particular decision of the Circuit Court was erroneous, to examine into other alleged errors and to correct them if they are found to exist. And this has been uniformly done by this court when the questions are in any degree connected with the controversy and the silence of the court might create doubts which would lead to further useless litigation.
1. The facts upon which the plaintiff relies did not give him his freedom and make him a citizen of Missouri.
2. The clause in the Constitution authorizing Congress to make all needful rules and regulations for the government of the territory and other property of the United States applies only to territory within the chartered limits of some one of the States when they were colonies of Great Britain, and which was surrendered by the British Government to the old Confederation of the States in the treaty of peace. It does not apply to territory acquired by the present Federal Government by treaty or conquest from a foreign nation.
3. The United States, under the present Constitution, cannot acquire territory to be held as a colony, to be governed at its will and pleasure. But it may acquire territory which, at the time, has not a population that fits it to become a State, and may govern it as a Territory until it has a population which, in the judgment of Congress, entitled it to be admitted as a State of the Union.
4. During the time it remains a Territory, Congress may legislate over it within the scope of its constitutional powers in relation to citizens of the United States, and may establish a Territorial Government, and the form of the local Government must be regulated by the discretion of Congress, but with powers not exceeding those which Congress itself, by the Constitution, is authorized to exercise over citizens of the United States in respect to the rights of persons or rights of property.
1. The territory thus acquired is acquired by the people of the United States for their common and equal benefit through their agent and trustee, the Federal Government. Congress can exercise no power over the rights of persons or property of a citizen in the Territory which is prohibited by the Constitution. The Government and the citizen, whenever the Territory is open to settlement, both enter it with their respective rights defined and limited by the Constitution.
2. Congress have no right to prohibit the citizens of any particular State or States from taking up their home there while it permits citizens of other States to do so. Nor has it a right to give privileges to one class of citizens which it refuses to another. The territory is acquired for their equal and common benefit, and if open to any, it must be open to all upon equal and the same terms.
3. Every citizen has a right to take with him into the Territory any article of property which the Constitution of the United States recognises as property.
4. The Constitution of the United States recognises slaves as property, and pledges the Federal Government to protect it. And Congress cannot exercise any more authority over property of that description than it may constitutionally exercise over property of any other kind.
5. The act of Congress, therefore, prohibiting a citizen of the United States from
Page 60 U. S. 396
taking with him his slaves when he removes to the Territory in question to reside is an exercise of authority over private property which is not warranted by the Constitution, and the removal of the plaintiff by his owner to that Territory gave him no title to freedom.
1. The plaintiff himself acquired no title to freedom by being taken by his owner to Rock Island, in Illinois, and brought back to Missouri. This court has heretofore decided that the status or condition of a person of African descent depended on the laws of the State in which he resided.
2. It has been settled by the decisions of the highest court in Missouri that, by the laws of that State, a slave does not become entitled to his freedom where the owner takes him to reside in a State where slavery is not permitted and afterwards brings him back to Missouri.
Conclusion. It follows that it is apparent upon the record that the court below erred in its judgment on the plea in abatement, and also erred in giving judgment for the defendant, when the exception shows that the plaintiff was not a citizen of the United States. And the Circuit Court had no jurisdiction, either in the cases stated in the plea in abatement or in the one stated in the exception, its judgment in favor of the defendant is erroneous, and must be reversed.
This case was brought up, by writ of error, from the Circuit Court of the United States for the district of Missouri.
It was an action of trespass vi et armis instituted in the Circuit Court by Scott against Sandford.
Prior to the institution of the present suit, an action was brought by Scott for his freedom in the Circuit Court of St. Louis county (State court), where there was a verdict and judgment in his favor. On a writ of error to the Supreme Court of the State, the judgment below was reversed and the case remanded to the Circuit Court, where it was continued to await the decision of the case now in question.
The declaration of Scott contained three counts: one, that Sandford had assaulted the plaintiff; one, that he had assaulted Harriet Scott, his wife; and one, that he had assaulted Eliza Scott and Lizzie Scott, his children.
Sandford appeared, and filed the following plea:
“DRED SCOTT )”
“v. ) Plea to the Jurisdiction of the Court.”
“JOHN F. A. SANDFORD )”
“APRIL TERM, 1854.”
“And the said John F. A. Sandford, in his own proper person, comes and says that this court ought not to have or take further cognizance of the action aforesaid, because he says that said cause of action and each and every of them (if any such have accrued to the said Dred Scott) accrued to the said Dred Scott out of the jurisdiction of this court, and exclusively within the jurisdiction of the courts of the State of Missouri, for that, to-wit: the said plaintiff, Dred Scott, is not a citizen of the State of Missouri, as alleged in his declaration, because
Page 60 U. S. 397
he is a negro of African descent; his ancestors were of pure African blood, and were brought into this country and sold as negro slaves, and this the said Sandford is ready to verify. Wherefore, he prays judgment whether this court can or will take further cognizance of the action aforesaid.”
“JOHN F. A. SANDFORD”
To this plea there was a demurrer in the usual form, which was argued in April, 1854, when the court gave judgment that the demurrer should be sustained.
In May, 1854, the defendant, in pursuance of an agreement between counsel, and with the leave of the court, pleaded in bar of the action:
1. Not guilty.
2. That the plaintiff was a negro slave, the lawful property of the defendant, and, as such, the defendant gently laid his hands upon him, and thereby had only restrained him, as the defendant had a right to do.
3. That with respect to the wife and daughters of the plaintiff, in the second and third counts of the declaration mentioned, the defendant had, as to them, only acted in the same manner and in virtue of the same legal right.
In the first of these pleas, the plaintiff joined issue, and to the second and third filed replications alleging that the defendant, of his own wrong and without the cause in his second and third pleas alleged, committed the trespasses, &c.
The counsel then filed the following agreed statement of facts, viz:
In the year 1834, the plaintiff was a negro slave belonging to Dr. Emerson, who was a surgeon in the army of the United States. I n that year, 1834, said Dr. Emerson took the plaintiff from the State of Missouri to the military post at Rock Island, in the State of Illinois, and held him there as a slave until the month of April or May, 1836. At the time last mentioned, said Dr. Emerson removed the plaintiff from said military post at Rock Island to the military post at Fort Snelling, situate on the west bank of the Mississippi river, in the Territory known as Upper Louisiana, acquired by the United States of France, and situate north of the latitude of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north, and north of the State of Missouri. Said Dr. Emerson held the plaintiff in slavery at said Fort Snelling, from said last-mentioned date until the year 1838.
In the year 1835, Harriet, who is named in the second count of the plaintiff’s declaration, was the negro slave of Major Taliaferro, who belonged to the army of the United States.
Page 60 U. S. 398
In that year, 1835, said Major Taliaferro took said Harriet to said Fort Snelling, a military post, situated as hereinbefore stated, and kept her there as a slave until the year 1836, and then sold and delivered her as a slave at said Fort Snelling unto the said Dr. Emerson hereinbefore named. Said Dr. Emerson held said Harriet in slavery at said Fort Snelling until the year 1838.
In the year 1836, the plaintiff and said Harriet at said Fort Snelling, with the consent of said Dr. Emerson, who then claimed to be their master and owner, intermarried, and took each other for husband and wife. Eliza and Lizzie, named in the third count of the plaintiff’s declaration, are the fruit of that marriage. Eliza is about fourteen years old, and was born on board the steamboat Gipsey, north of the north line of the State of Missouri, and upon the river Mississippi. Lizzie is about seven years old, and was born in the State of Missouri, at the military post called Jefferson Barracks.
In the year 1838, said Dr. Emerson removed the plaintiff and said Harriet and their said daughter Eliza from said Fort Snelling to the State of Missouri, where they have ever since resided.
Before the commencement of this suit, said Dr. Emerson sold and conveyed the plaintiff, said Harriet, Eliza, and Lizzie, to the defendant, as slaves, and the defendant has ever since claimed to hold them and each of them as slaves.
At the times mentioned in the plaintiff’s declaration, the defendant, claiming to be owner as aforesaid, laid his hands upon said plaintiff, Harriet, Eliza, and Lizzie, and imprisoned them, doing in this respect, however, no more than what he might lawfully do if they were of right his slaves at such times.
Further proof may be given on the trial for either party.
It is agreed that Dred Scott brought suit for his freedom in the Circuit Court of St. Louis county; that there was a verdict and judgment in his favor; that, on a writ of error to the Supreme Court, the judgment below was reversed, and the same remanded to the Circuit Court, where it has been continued to await the decision of this case.
In May, 1854, the cause went before a jury, who found the following verdict, viz:
“As to the first issue joined in this case, we of the jury find the defendant not guilty; and as to the issue secondly above joined, we of the jury find that before and at the time when, &c., in the first count mentioned, the said Dred Scott was a negro slave, the lawful property of the defendant; and as to the issue thirdly above joined, we, the jury, find that before and at the time when, &c., in the second and third counts mentioned, the said Harriet, wife of
Page 60 U. S. 399
said Dred Scott, and Eliza and Lizzie, the daughters of the said Dred Scott, were negro slaves, the lawful property of the defendant.”
Whereupon, the court gave judgment for the defendant.
After an ineffectual motion for a new trial, the plaintiff filed the following bill of exceptions.
On the trial of this cause by the jury, the plaintiff, to maintain the issues on his part, read to the jury the following agreed statement of facts, (see agreement above.) No further testimony was given to the jury by either party. Thereupon the plaintiff moved the court to give to the jury the following instruction, viz:
“That, upon the facts agreed to by the parties, they ought to find for the plaintiff. The court refused to give such instruction to the jury, and the plaintiff, to such refusal, then and there duly excepted.”
The court then gave the following instruction to the jury, on motion of the defendant:
“The jury are instructed, that upon the facts in this case, the law is with the defendant.”
The plaintiff excepted to this instruction.
Upon these exceptions, the case came up to this court.
https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/60/393/ This is not my history, I don’t approve of dehumanizing of my brothers and sisters. I did no ask to be born in a nation that would ever treat fellow humans the way this supreme court ruled as upstanding constitutional law, to treat people as property it a sub human act on the part of slave owners and supposedly learned men of the law even if it was 163 years ago.
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) I think John Brown was right on all accounts although when meeting violence with violence one must assess the strength of his adversaries and their will to treat others as possessions. At times it is a fine line between restraining a party who is profiting from crimes against humanity and acts of violence even enacted for such a worthy cause as putting an end to slavery. On the morning of December 2, 1859, the day he was hanged, Brown wrote:
I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood. I had, as I now think, vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed it might be done. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Brown_(abolitionist)
How many African Americans were lynched after the Emancipation Proclamation? According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 African Americans and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynching_in_the_United_States
The history of genocide against the Native Peoples of the Western Hemisphere is not the history of the making of a civilized nation.
The Trail of Tears:
Plutocracy Versus Democracy
The United States government has a history of shooting and killing people who stand up for their rights as defined in the very constitution that the supposed authority of the government is based upon.
“Patriotism is the last refuge of scoundrels.”, Samuel Johnson April 7, 1775 “When Fascism comes to America, it will be wrapped in the flag and carrying a cross”― James Waterman Wise (not Louis Sinclair in the 1930s). “For in every age it has been the tyrant, who has wrapped himself in the cloak of patriotism, or religion, or both”- Eugene Victor Debs.
Private ownership of the monetary system as defined and verified in the ‘Open Secret: The Royal History of Monetary Order’ chapter has delivered the lions share of wealth to parasites rather than to those who walk the walk, those who are creative, inventive and hard working, those types of under rewarded people which along with nature provide us with wealthy meaningful lives within the natural realm.
Four hedge fund operators personally raked in over a billion dollars of wealth in 2017. They are often involved in hostile take overs of companies and then destroy the manufacturing ability of the entities and sell off the spoils like parasites. Workers, everyone from engineers, to doctors and even lawyers down to floor sweepers and garbage workers actually do work even if it is paper work, stock holders do no work, they do not even make decisions, they put nothing into the system and live off of the system as unconstitutional elites. Anyway yes I have a computer and I do not owe any capitalists for it, I bought it broke and fixed it myself.
I sometimes debate with myself if television is a worthy addition to our quality of life because of propaganda and distraction yet it is a part of our lives as an information and entertainment media. None the less when you compare the monetary rewards disbursed to the inventor, Philo T. Farnsworth https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philo_Farnsworth , with the rewards received by the CEO of RCA, https://web.stanford.edu/group/scspi/media/_media/pdf/Reference%20Media/Frydman%20and%20Saks_2005_Elites.pdf
There is another more recent case that proves access to money rather than creativeness, inventiveness and hard work is the determining factor in an individual person’s economic stature and wealth. That case is the rise of Bill Gates and Microsoft. Although Bill Gates is no dummy and was an intelligent and gifted young man, who with his parents help was able to buy time on some of the very first computers and learn to program them and even start his own programming company. He was even smart enough to recognize that a small group of computer enthusiasts had designed and copyrighted a program called DOS or one of several variations of Disk Operating System(DOS), this is by memory as I understand it. So for this writing I utilized Wikipedia and found, “The system was initially named QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System), before being made commercially available as 86-DOS. Microsoft purchased 86-DOS, allegedly for $50,000. This became Microsoft Disk Operating System, MS-DOS, introduced in 1981.” from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DOS . So in other words once again it takes money to make money and unless you are connected to money one way or another no matter how smart and how creative you are, in the current and long standing socio-economic privately owned monetary system reality you will end up a loser unless you have access to money, a lot of money.
Three people in the United States are wealthier than the poorer ½ of the entire population: https://www.forbes.com/sites/noahkirsch/2017/11/09/the-3-richest-americans-hold-more-wealth-than-bottom-50-of-country-study-finds/#7d1cd35d3cf8
The top 4 hedge fund operators each individually raking in over a billion dollars in 2017 is nothing less than the modern equivalent of royalty and the titles of nobility: https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/30/four-hedge-fund-managers-top-1-billion-in-pay.html
How did this obvious undeniable unconstitutional class of nobility come into being in the United States? Well, first it is an ongoing history of the domination, monopolization of trade through a monetary system privately owned by entities above and beyond the restraints of governments whether monarchy or republic, whether evidence of dictatorship or facade of democracy defines those governments. In the United States the current monetary monarchy is enshrined in the unconstitutional Federal Reserve Act, if you are at all interested in the value of your goods and services you would read it here: https://legcounsel.house.gov/Comps/Federal%20Reserve%20Act.pdf.
Figure 27 on page 210 explains how fake mysticism the expansion of the money supply really is: https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11696.pdf. They have the audacity to arrange a ledger, a spreadsheet, using Roman kings as headings of a list of distributions of their fiat money to the banks of the United States and the world, they believe they are above the law and they are above and beyond adamant about their power and wealth believing the petite bourgeois in the US government will take their place in the trickle down hierarchy of unconstitutional fiat currency royal scam started with the First Bank of ethe United States charter and has a 107 year reign going since the 1913 Federal Reserve Act was signed into law by traitors to the United States Constitution: https://legcounsel.house.gov/Comps/Federal%20Reserve%20Act.pdf
Savings and loan scandal under GHWB gave them tax payer money for free.. The Bush Jr Obama banker bail out gave bankers our money. All this yet many poorer and middle class working people are swayed by propaganda to believe poor people who receive food stamps are stealing from them
60 of the largest corporation in the United States paid not taxes in 2018:
It is hard for people to comprehend that money something so important to their lives is conjured out of nowhere by the private, so called central bank of last resort which consists of the Federal Reserve(FED) and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the Chairperson of the FED is also on the board of the BIS which is unconstitutional in respect to several, “title of nobility”, clauses. These private bankers have a monopoly on the printing of our currency yet the Federal Reserve Act states they have an “ c) EXEMPTION FROM TAXATION.”
13 worst Supreme Court Decisions of all time: https://blogs.findlaw.com/supreme_court/2015/10/13-worst-supreme-court-decisions-of-all-time.html
So is is a varified fact that the majority of citizens of the northern central Western Continent have never had ‘self determination’ as individuals nor as a nation. The only way to end this subjugation is by people of all races, ethnic cultural diversity to organize and unite in an effort to gain the right of self rule through national referendum and recall/no confidence voting process and direct participatory democracy.
War and War Profiteering are Pure Evil
The Final Frontier, overcoming WAR
According to this study 54% of United States Government spending goes toward the military: https://www.nationalpriorities.org/campaigns/military-spending-united-states/ Out of any activity that humans take part in war is the most destructive and evil activity of all. War Mechanized at the current level humanity is currently capable of is not part of a civilized society.
We are humans and individually as well as collectively, tribal we will most likely continue to have disagreements and conflicts. Supplying ever more dangerous and powerful weapons for profit without being restrained is a crime against humanity. The only force powerful to stop weapons dealers is an international majority collective of concerned citizens.
George Carlin, we like war: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GeZ3nCXyb_Q
When the most prevalent activity and industry our species partakes in is building selling and using equipment designed to kill one another, we are no where near the sentient sapient civilized beings we claim to be. Fighting and a certain level of war is almost certain, just as certain as every mammal competes with members of their own species for food sex and territory. A far greater problem came into existence when parties directly or indirectly connected with local conflicts and hostilities began to supply ever increasingly powerful weapons. War profiteering has become the greatest threat and to this day an un-prosecuted crime against humanity.
The United States no doubt due to the nature of the imperialistic desires of the corporate capitalist friendly founding documents and unique place in history are the worst offending war profiteering monger nation on the planet. How many bankers have been in the military? How many military industrial complex CEOs fought in the wars they profited off of? The monetary system monopolizing weapons dealing war profiteers have taken in trillions of dollars in profits and left the working class tax payers to pick up the tab. From the United States so called Revolutionary War until these very days of endless wars on ‘terrorism’ from October 7, 2001 up until this very day of February 16, 2020 a class of people have profited from the death and destruction of war. Here is a partial list of wars the United States has been involved in compiled by Gettysburg Flag Works, after this list I have added list of covert operations and other declared and undeclared wars not included in this informing list with US casualties, injuries and monetary cost :
LIST OF MAJOR AMERICAN WARS
THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR (1775-1783)
The British Navigation acts, the closing of western lands, the restricting of the colonial currency, the Quartering Act, the Stamp Act, and The Townshend Acts enacted by the British Parliament contributed to the revolution of colonists. In 1773, the British Parliament permitted the East India Company to sell tea in the colonies at very low prices, which resulted in the Boston tea party. The response of the British Parliament was the Intolerable Acts and the Quebec Act in 1774. In September of the same year, the First Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia. The Revolutionary War began in 1775. The second Continental Congress was held in May, 1775 in Philadelphia. In 1776, the United States declared independence. British and American troops fought near Boston, New York, Trenton, and other places. In 1783, by the Treaty of Paris, the independence of the 13th colonies was recognized by Great Britain, and the war ended.
American Revolutionary War Statistics:
Service Members: 200,000
Casualties: 4,435 Dead, 6,188 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $1.2
WAR OF 1812 (1812-1815)
The United States declared war on Britain in 1812. The Americans’ attempts to conquer Canada during the campaigns of 1812-1813 failed. British blockaded the American coast. After many battles, the war was ended in 1814 by the Treaty of Ghent, which was the Belgium of old. Weeks after that, Major General Andrew Jackson, also known as “Old Hickory,” won the battle of New Orleans. The war ended with no gain for both sides.
War of 1812 Statistics:
Service Members: 286,000
Casualties: 2,260 Dead, 4,505 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $0.7
MEXICAN – AMERICAN WAR (1846-1848)
Mexico refused to recognize the annexation of Texas. In 1846, Mexicans attacked US troops, and the Congress declared war on Mexico. The Mexican-American War was ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. Mexico ceded the states of California, Utah, Nevada, as well as parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Wyoming.
Mexican-American War Statistics:
Service Members: 78,718
Casualties: 13,283 Dead, 4,152 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $1.1
AMERICAN CIVIL WAR (1861–1865)
The American Civil War was fought by 11 southern states known as the Confederacy and Union states. Since President Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party were against the expansion of slavery, the southern states declared their secession from the Union. This war was the deadliest in American history. The Union won, the Confederate armies surrendered in 1865, and the war ended the practice of slavery.
American Civil War Statistics:
Service Members: 2,803,300
Casualties: 360,000 Dead, 275,175 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $27.3
The Confederate States of America
Service Members: 1,064,200
Casualties: 260,000 Dead, 137,000+ Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $17.1
Service Members: 3,867,500
Casualties: 620,000 Dead, 412,175+ Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $44.4
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (1898)
Spain declared war on the US in April 1898 because the US supported the Cuban struggle for independence. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in August, 1898. The US gained the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.
Spanish-American War Statistics:
Service Members: 306,800
Casualties: 387 Dead, 1,662 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $6.3
WORLD WAR I (1914-1918)
The First World War began in 1914, and it was fought between the Allied (Entente) Powers, which included the Russian Empire, the British Empire, France, the Empire of Japan, Italy, and the US, and the Central Powers, which included the Ottoman Empire, the German Empire, the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria. The war ended with the victory of the Allied Powers in 1918. New nations were formed.
World War I Statistics:
Service Members: 4,743,800
Casualties: 116,708 Dead, 204,002 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $196.5
WORLD WAR II (1939-1945)
The Second World War started in 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. It was fought between the Axis Powers, which consisted of Germany, Italy, and Japan, and the Allies, which were made up of the British Empire, the USSR, and the USA. The war ended with the capitulation of Germany and Japan in 1945. Warsaw Pact and NATO were created, and the Cold War began.
World War II Statistics:
Service Members: 16,353,700
Casualties: 407,316 Dead, 670,846 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $2,091.3
KOREAN WAR (1950-1953)
In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea, and the nations that were allied with the US (the UN) intervened on behalf of the South. The USSR and the People’s Republic of China supported the North Korea. The Korean conflict ended in 1953. The Korean Demilitarized Zone was established.
Korean War Statistics:
Service Members: 5,764,100
Casualties: 33,651 Dead, 103,284 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $263.9
VIETNAM WAR (1959-1975)
The Vietnam War was fought between the communist forces of North Vietnam, Viet Kong, Khmer Rouge, the People’s Republic of China, USSR, North Korea, and Pathet Lao, and the anticommunist forces of US, South Vietnam, South Korea, Australia, Philippines, Thailand, New Zealand, the Kingdom of Laos and the Khmer Republic. North Vietnam won, and Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam became communist states.
Vietnam War Statistics:
Service Members: 8,744,000
Casualties: 58,168 Dead, 303,635 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $346.7
GULF WAR (1990-1991)
The war was fought between Iraq and the coalition forces of 34 nations that were authorized by the UN, after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The war ended with the coalition victory, and Kuwait was liberated.
Gulf War Statistics:
Service Members: 2,750,000
Casualties: 382 Dead, 467 Wounded
Financial Cost in billions (1990s): $61.1
WAR IN AFGHANISTAN (2001-PRESENT)
Beginning October 7, 2001, Operation Enduring Freedom is the U.S. led effort to drive al-Qaeda and Taliban forces from power in Afghanistan. The war is still ongoing today.
Afghanistan War Statistics (as of 8/2017)
U.S. Troops Serving: 8,400
U.S. Casualties: 2,403 dead
Financial Cost: $783 billion through fiscal year 2016
Iraq War (Second Iraq War, Operation Iraqi Freedom) began on 20 March 2003
US Troops who served: Overall more that one million US troops served in Iraq since 2003
US Casualties: 4,571 https://www.statista.com/statistics/263798/american-soldiers-killed-in-iraq/
Financial Cost through 2013: $1.7 trillion by the Watson Institute, Brown University
These statistics above say nothing about the deaths damage done to the civilian residents or military opponents in the foreign countries where the US fought or how many people other than US service members died in such conflicts. Here is an estimate of some of damage wars and interventions the US has been involved in since WWII ended, compiled by Global Research:
U.S. Regime Has Killed 20-30 Million People Since World War II, https://www.globalresearch.ca/u-s-regime-has-killed-20-30-million-people-since-world-war-ii/5633111
Next on the list are additional conflicts in Libya, Syria, and South America and CIA covert and clandestine operations we barely know about if at all: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R45175.pdf
https://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/ops/covert-ops.htm I know the CIA has been working in Venezuela, Columbia, Bolivia and Honduras and places in Africa and is to this day.
Nuclear Weapons are pure evil:
Every man, every woman and every child in the world is targeted and hostaged. … on the lethality of the nuclear weapons, Arnold Toynbee once observed that “now we …. acquire the power to kill and overkill. There is something ….. the superpowers, it is developed enough to carry the nuclear weapons and destroy many …
Today there are still about 17,300 nuclear weapons in the world, most of them American or Russian, with a combined destructive force equivalent to 1,500 pounds of TNT for each and every man, woman and child on earth. The detonation of even a fraction of this stockpile could produce a worldwide Chernobyl, followed by a new ice age of dark starvation. Not even Dante imagined a fate so cruel for humankind. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/23/books/review/thermonuclear-monarchy-by-elaine-scarry.html
A society that is so preoccupied with developing ever more complicated and efficient mechanisms for killing one another can hardly be considered civilized let alone moral and fair principled creatures.
War does three things for the ruling class, they charge the cost of it up to the common people, their corporations and themselves profit from the sale of weapons and all supplies necessary to carry on the war, the people can’t afford the immediate expense of the war so money is borrowed from the ruling class at interest and thirdly the corporations come to own the natural resources of the countries they take by force.
The United States Declaration was signed by 56 white European land owner males. The population of the 13 colonies in 1776 is estimated to be about 2.5 million, https://brilliantmaps.com/population-density-1775/ . It is all but assured that this population estimate does not include slaves of Natives(Indians). Also 1790 was the first US Census which listed a number of 3,893,635, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census, https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/us-census-1790/ . None the less, when compared to 56, several, two or three million is quite a large number to be represented by a mere 56. Then I read somewhere that about 1/3rd of the colonists at or near the time of the beginning of the revolution were loyalists to Great Britain, 1/3rd were for the revolution and 1/3rd had no opinion or said to be fence sitters, so those for independence were actually in the minority, maybe? https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/5641 , https://www.ajc.com/news/opinion/war-independence-that-divided-american-colonies/QNyLHauR5rBprEGIAF630O/ , https://www.nps.gov/_cs_upload/kimo/learn/education/classrooms/508269_1.pdf
Well here is a transcript of John Adams actual letter where the ‘thirds’ statement came from. The letter is a mixture of topics but some of the ‘thirds’ do seem to be related to the US people. It is obvious to me that the writers of the 20th and 21st century United States would desire to believe and prove to others that the majority of colonists were for the revolution when the revolution was declared by the 56 in writing, this desire of theirs cannot be proven, it is most likely, that the majority of free white people. Native’s(Indians) and Slaves of African decent combined were not in favor of the war, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-6401
Here below is the text of the ‘Declaration of Independence’ of the United States government.
In Congress, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
So when reading this Declaration, I feel I should compare it’s grievances with my grievances using it as a reference. I must think dialectically in both the case of my stated cause for a modern revolution of the West and review the grievances in the 1776 Declaration as if I were on the side of Great Britain. Just like my grievances will be reviewed by the loyalists of our day. After reading the Declaration of Independence some of the grievances seem reasonable but many of the grievances seem to be without merit. I don’t feel that asking for a national referendum to consider if the majority want to validate the United States Constitution or begin writing a new constitution is an act of war or treason. In fact such a remedy is in line accordance with the 1776 Declaration and Article 5 of the US Constitution.
Notice there is nothing in the constitution to forbid the government from lying to the citizens. In fact only the elected officials themselves can judge one another and when they choose to do so the only possible recourse is impeachment, which only punishment it removal from office. So the leaders are above the law within the actual framework of the very Constitution that is the basis of their authority. Therefore the so called leaders, the officers are no different from the royalty of the countries they left. The fact that constitution does not give any power over the executive branch to the Congress other than impeachment is proof that the Constitution of the United States does not live up to theses words of the Declaration of Independence for all men let alone any woman: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Now as far as the signers of the US Constitution and founding fathers actions during the beginnings of the United States Government, 47 out of 60 of them owned slaves at one time in their lives. Indians, Native Peoples, were not recognized as citizens or humans on the same level as themselves. Women were marginalized in a patriarchal system which had no place for them. The United States Government always was and always will be the government by the rich people, for the rich people and of rich people.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
—Abraham Lincoln Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863
A beautiful prideful patriotic speech that for the vast majority of US citizens is a false celebration of something that never was true before or since. How can a person argue against such an all American speech? You will be considered a traitor and every other foul thing imaginable even with all the documentation from then until now to prove the poor European working class and the poor vast majority of African Americans never experienced the freedoms and dignity promised us all. What is the cause of this phenomenon of loyalty to people who are in power and wealth? What mechanism whether genetic or taught can get people to act against their own best interests to worship the power and wealth of a class that does not care if you suffer and die?
The first words of the preamble of the United States Constitution are, “We the People”, yet this document was never brought before the public, the true working class citizens, it was designed to be the justification of the self appointed authority those citizens, those people would become loyal subjects to. The United States Constitution was never ratified by “We the People” in no modern sense of the word or even ancient Latin etymology sense of the word has ever been ratified the bogus United States Constitution that was never meant by it signers to apply to anyone except themselves.
We are told until beyond the point where we are able to accept or reject such important historical happening of our own accord, that the founding fathers of the United States are to be immortalized due to their great wisdom, brother and sisterhood reflected in their writing and signing of the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution being the documents our nation’s government is to be founded upon. If we are to study the documents themselves and the actions of those involved, we can come to no other conclusion that this government was a farce leaving us to be subjects of an oligarchic system that has proven itself no better than being under the governance they claim to have overthrown. Therefore the entities involved in the structure and system known as the United States government are illegitimate. It is long past time for the majority of well meaning people who share humanistic as well as Christian doctrines of goodwill and love toward fellow humans, fellow country folk and nature itself demand change that can be nothing less then the development and installation of a new form of western government.
the constitution is contradictory within itself because we cannot have an electoral college decide the election contradictory to the popular vote because we are guaranteed a Republican form of government, therefor we have a Constitutional Crisis.
There are some decent sections and clauses within the Constitution despite the fact that it is not a ratified legitimate document. Some of the organizing principles are reasonable such as the division of power between legislative, judicial and executive branches. The bill of rights or a similar charter or declaration is indispensable to the organization of any legitimate form of governance including one where every citizen gets a meaningful vote on all legislation and appropriation we are to live under and within.
It’s male European royal decedent writers of the Declaration of Independence nor the US Constitution were never meant to be applied to every human in the Nation, this is well proven and documented, yet through propaganda and taking advantage of human nature of the human mind the small group that dominates and abuses the rest of us are worshiped as great heroes.
Obvious flaws in the Constitution.
The Senate with each state no matter what the population having two Senators corrupts both democratic and republican forms of government which both are synonymous with majority rule and majority choosing their representatives. The notion of one person one vote is totally disregarded.
The electoral college and the right to a republican for of government are contradictory.
Although the Congress makes the laws when the government violates the laws there is no mechanism other than impeachment for Congress to enforce the laws. Impeachment is very complex and the 2/3rds needed for conviction in the Senate in order for the impeachment to be enforced means that it only takes 1/3 of loyalists to the Government within the Senate to quash any effort to enforce the laws.
The government and the Congress violates and are derelict as to their constitutional duties as a way of business.
Congress is supposed to Coin the money.
When an un-elected class of people print the money and collect taxes and then they own industries that provide services to the government then use that money to purchase things they already tromped on the money from three sides; this consists of nothing less than a royal title a class of nobility
Senators invest in firms they are supposed to be regulating:
Revealed: how US senators invest in firms they are supposed …
https://www.theguardian.com › us-senators-investments-conflict-of-interest
Sep 19, 2019 – Analysis of financial disclosure data shows 51 senators and their spouses have as much as $96m invested in corporate stocks.
Fair Rational Critique of the US Constituti0n
I have written comments (annotations) in parenthesis immediately following some of the text of the articles, sections and clauses of the Constitution so the reader can think about the inconsistencies, contradictions and outright inhumane criminal clauses of the oldest constitution still in use on the planet. Donald Trump and other politicians brag about the fact of how great the US Constitution is and how old it is, the US Constitution is racist mean and nasty, nothing to be proud of. The Constitution is nothing but a power grab of European Aristocracy. The fact that all but one President’s linage can be traced back to an English or European king or tow is proof that we need some serious changes in this country.
The Constitution of the United States of America (annotated)
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this
Article I (Article 1 – Legislative)
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. (therefore a majority of Presidential Executive Orders are against the US Constitution yet they are tollerated by those selected to become elite instead of representing the majority of the people)
1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.2 The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
4: When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
5: The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof,3 for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
2: Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.4
3: No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
4: The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
5: The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
6: The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present. (The Senate practice has been to require each Senator to swear or affirm that he will do impartial justice according to the Constitution and laws. 3 https://constitution.congress.gov/browse/essay/artI_S3_C6_1_3_2/ )
7: Judgment in Cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
1: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.
2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,5 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
2: Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
3: Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. (Secrecy needs a time limit or the USG is not a valid constitutional republic. )
4: Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.6 They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. (Privilege from arrest is a title of nobility contrary to other articles, sections and clauses of this constitution making it contradictory and unworkable, everyone must be equal under the law, if a government worker is accused of a crime, they should be subject to incarceration and have to post bail like any other citizen and be held innocent until proven guilty like every other citizen.)
2: No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.
1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
2: Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
3: Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; (the private quasi governmentally regulated Federal Reserve is unconstitutional and immoral. )
2: To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; (Since the Federal Reserve does not have to borrow money, the United States should never have to borrow money, maybe when the gold standard or the silver standard was tried but not when we have a privately owned fiat system, borrowing and owing in this manner is a title of nobility. )
3: To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; (commerce also called corporations have regulated the government and owned the government since the beginning, the Congress has forsaken neglected their duties, violated their oaths of office and sold the people down the river. (laissez-faire is unconstitutional)
4: To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
5: To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; (Again the have blatantly violated their oaths of office choosing to become petite nobility rather than serve the people they serve the wealthy few.)
6: To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States; (Federal Reserve is counter fiat 🙂
7: To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
8: To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
9: To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
10: To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; (Most presidents in my lifetime have thumbed their noses at the law of nations and did what they and their corporate masters wanted to increase their profits without regard for nature, humanity or any moral premise other than maximizing their profits)
11: To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
12: To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
13: To provide and maintain a Navy;
14: To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
15: To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
16: To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
17: To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And
18: To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
1: The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
2: The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.
3: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
4: No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.7
5: No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.
6: No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
7: No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
8: No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State. ( In 1913 the Congress gave private bankers near full control of our monetary system, the Federal Reserve Act is the greatest title of nobility ever given to any group of people in the entire history of humanity.)
1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
2: No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
3: No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.
Article II (Article 2 – Executive)
1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows
2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. (this clause is contradictory to in direct conflict with Article 4 Section 4 which states in part, “ The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government,” for the readers reference here are some definitions of a Republic, in each case the majority of voters elect it’s leaders, not a select nobility entitled to choose the President. re·pub·li·can (of a form of government, constitution, etc.) belonging to, or characteristic of a republic. re·pub·lic noun a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch. Lexicon (Oxford))
3: The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.8 (this is more anti-republican hog wash, the Congress chooses electors and the electors choose the President, nothing but aristocracy)
4: The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
6: In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office,9 the Same shall devolve on the VicePresident, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
7: The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them. (The Congress, since it has no authority over law enforcement, has no way to force a president to abide by any rule or any law, we have witnessed this time and time again in my lifetime. This situation is a weekness of the design of the United States form of government which results in a less democratic and more authoritarian society.
8: Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. (This is not based on democracy or even a republican form of government, it gives far too much power to the president, especially a president chosen to be put forth by a two party system not for public election but by electoral college vote, so again the United States government does not meet the definition of a republic much less a democracy.)
3: The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. (“take care” does not bind him or force them to adhere to or inforce the law fairly and equally.)
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
Article III (Article 3 – Judicial)
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
1: The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State;10 —between Citizens of different States, —between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
2: In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellateJurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
3: The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed. (Impeachment process is a means of placing government officials above the law, we need leaders to be bound by the same laws we are all bound by.)
1: Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court. (treason: the crime of betraying one’s country, especially by attempting to kill the sovereign or overthrow the government. ‘Oxford’, In law, treason is criminal disloyalty to the state. It is a crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one’s nation or sovereign. Wikipedia. Therefore the signers of the Constitution limited the definition of treason giving the executive officers rights and privileges above and beyond those of the common citizens. Between this limited definition of treason and impeachment being the only redress or sanction places them above the law.)
2: The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. (This is actually a civil right that is often forgotten about. It protects family members from persecution from crimes of another family member they had no involvement in.)
Article IV (Article 4 – States’ Relations)
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
2: A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
3: No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.11 (kept slaves from fleeing to a non-slave state)
1: New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
2: The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence. ((republican:a form of government, constitution, etc.) belonging to, or characteristic of a republic. Oxford republic: a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch. a group with a certain equality between its members. ACHAIC Oxford Republic : a government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives responsible to them and governing according to law. Merriam-Webster. Therefore since the Constitution itself takes the right of citizens to choose their representatives, the United States Government does not meet the standards of a constitutional republic.)
Article V (Article 5 – Mode of Amendment)
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. (The US Constitution was never ratified by the majority of citizens, let alone by Native Peoples, African Slaves or women for that matter. With no referendum powers of the people any such designed Amendment is subject to the whims of the aristocracy.)
Article VI (Article 6 – Prior Debts, National Supremacy, Oaths of Office)
1: All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. (Who did and does the United States government owe? This entity is so obviously above the law, This government is a plutocracy at best.)
2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
3: The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
Article VII (Article 7 – Ratification)
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
The Word “the”, being interlined between the seventh and eight Lines of the first Page, The Word “Thirty” being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page. The Words “is tried” being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word “the” being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.
done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,
Attest William Jackson Secretary
Go: Washington -President. and deputy from Virginia Showing George Washington’s signature.Amendments to the US Constitution beginning with what is also known as the Bill of Rights:
Amendments to the Constitution skip to Notes up to Letter of Transmittal to Congress
(The procedure for changing the United States Constitution is Article V – Mode of Amendment)
(The Preamble to The Bill of Rights) showing the heading of the Bill of Rights
Congress OF THE United States
begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.12
(Articles I through X are known as the Bill of Rights) ratified-
Article the first. …. After the first enumeration required by the first Article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which, the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.-
Article the second. …. No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened. see Amendment XXVII
Article [I] (Amendment 1 – Freedom of expression and religion) 13
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. (“In God We Trust” written on our money violates this article. Freedom of the press is not a strong enough guarantee that the people have access to unbiased information, the news media is owned by private corporations which for a large part have turned it into a propaganda network. We need some sort of rule to protect honesty and integrity in the distribution of information. How did freedom of religion lead to churches and religious zealots not being taxed?)
Article [II] (Amendment 2 – Bearing Arms)
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. (this needs some work, known criminals having access to lethal weapons and the illusion that weapons can protect us from our government need to be addressed, for one each one of us are or would be our government in an actual constitutional democracy, guns for hunting and self defense in certain situations will never go away. In the same instance convincing people and believing that guns of any caliber and style are an absolute right is closer to treasonous than to any notion of patriotic)
Article [III] (Amendment 3 – Quartering Soldiers)
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Article [IV] (Amendment 4 – Search and Seizure)
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. (this is violated by police on a regular basis, it needs work)
Article [V] (Amendment 5 – Rights of Persons)
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Article [VI] (Amendment 6 – Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions)
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. (This gives favoritism to people with money and prevents people from defending themselves. Lawyers and prosecutors need a better set of rules than what we have, judges too, they follow an elite capitalist set of rules)
Article [VII] (Amendment 7 – Civil Trials)
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Article [VIII] (Amendment 8 – Further Guarantees in Criminal Cases)
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Article [IX] (Amendment 9 – Unenumerated Rights)
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Article [X] (Amendment 10 – Reserved Powers)
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
(end of the Bill of Rights)
[Article XI] (Amendment 11 – Suits Against States)
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. ratified #11 affects 10 ( So what does this mean? If a cop from a state other than you stops you, steals from you rapes your wife, you can’t sue the cop?)
[Article XII] (Amendment 12 – Election of President)
The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.14 —The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. ratified #12 affects 8 (hog wash, the elite choosing themselves)
Article XIII (Amendment 13 – Slavery and Involuntary Servitude)
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Affects 11 (allows slavery to this day)
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #13
Article XIV (Amendment 14 – Rights Guaranteed: Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection)
1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
2: Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,15 and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. affects 2
3: No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
4: The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
5: The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. ratified #14
Article XV (Amendment 15 – Rights of Citizens to Vote)
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. (The right to vote for people to vote for you is not the right to vote, many states make a felon ineligible to vote for life)
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #15
Article XVI (Amendment 16 – Income Tax)
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. ratified #16 affects 2
[Article XVII] (Amendment 17 – Popular Election of Senators)
1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. Affects 3 (This does not make sense it sort of reverses the 15th Amendment and refers to ‘electors’ rather than to citizens)
2: When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. affects 4
3: This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. ratified #17
Article [XVIII] (Amendment 18 – Prohibition of Intoxicating Liquors)16
1: After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. (obviously unconstitutional)
2: The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. ratified #18
Article [XIX] (Amendment 19 – Women’s Suffrage Rights)
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. affects 15
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #19
Article [XX] (Amendment 20 – Terms of President, Vice President, Members of Congress: Presidential Vacancy)
1: The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. affects 5
2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. affects 5
3: If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. affects 9 affects 14
4: The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. affects 9
5: Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.
6: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission. ratified #20
Article [XXI] (Amendment 21 – Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment)
1: The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. affects 16
2: The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. ratified #21
Amendment XXII (Amendment 22 – Presidential Tenure)
1: No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
2: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress. ratified #22
Amendment XXIII (Amendment 23 – Presidential Electors for the District of Columbia)
1: The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
2: The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #23
Amendment XXIV (Amendment 24 – Abolition of the Poll Tax Qualification in Federal Elections)
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #24
Amendment XXV affects 9 (Amendment 25 – Presidential Vacancy, Disability, and Inability)
1: In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
2: Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
3: Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
4: Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. ratified #25
Amendment XXVI (Amendment 26 – Reduction of Voting Age Qualification)
1: The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age. affects 15
2: The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #26
Amendment XXVII (Amendment 27 – Congressional Pay Limitation)
No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened. ratified #27
skip to Dates up to Amendments
Note 1: This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed copy signed by Gen. Washington and the deputies from 12 States. The arabic numerals preceding the paragraphs designate Clauses, and were not printed (but are referred to) in the original and have no reference to footnotes that appear as small superior figures (superscripts). ratification
Note 2: The part of Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3 relating to the mode of apportionment of representatives among the several States has been affected by Amendment XIV Section 2, and as to taxes on incomes without apportionment by Amendment XVI.
Note 3: Article 1 Section 3 Clause 1 has been affected by Amendment XVII Section 1.
Note 4: Article 1 Section 3 Clause 2 has been affected by Amendment XVII Section 2.
Note 5: Article 1 Section 4 Clause 2 has been affected by Amendment XX.
Note 6: Article 1 Section 6 Clause 1 has been affected by Amendment XXVII.
Note 7: Article 1 Section 9 Clause 4 has been affected by Amendment XVI.
Note 8: Article 2 Section 1 Clause 3 has been superseded by Amendment XII.
Note 9: Article 2 Section 1 Clause 6 has been affected by Amendment XX and Amendment XXV.
Note 10: Article 3 Section 2 Clause 1 has been affected by Amendment XI.
Note 11: Article 4 Section 2 Clause 3 has been affected by Amendment XIII Section 1.
Note 12: The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States are known as the Bill of Rights
Note 13: The Bill of Rights only had ten of the twelve articles ratified and these were then renumbered. Of the others only the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th articles of amendment had numbers assigned to them at the time of ratification.
Note 14: This sentence of Amendment XII has been superseded by Amendment XX Section 3.
Note 15: Article XIV Section 2 is modified by Amendment XIX Section 1 and Amendment XXVI Section 1.
Note 16: Amendment XVIII repealed by Amendment XXI Section 1.
skip to Spellings up to Notes
May 25, 1787: The Constitutional Convention opens with a quorum of seven states in Philadelphia to discuss revising the Articles of Confederation. Eventually all states but Rhode Island are represented.
Sept. 17, 1787: All 12 state delegations approve the Constitution, 39 delegates sign it of the 42 present, and the Convention formally adjourns.
June 21, 1788: The Constitution becomes effective for the ratifying states when New Hampshire is the ninth state to ratify it.
Mar. 4, 1789: The first Congress under the Constitution convenes in New York City.
Apr. 30, 1789: George Washington is inaugurated as the first President of the United States.
June 8, 1789: James Madison introduces proposed Bill of Rights in the House of Representatives.
Sept. 24, 1789: Congress establishes a Supreme Court, 13 district courts, three ad hoc circuit courts, and the position of Attorney General.
Sept. 25, 1789: Congress approves 12 amendments and sends them to the states for ratification.
Feb. 2, 1790: Supreme Court convenes for the first time after an unsuccessful attempt February 1.
Dec. 15, 1791: Virginia ratifies the Bill of Rights, and 10 of the 12 proposed amendments become part of the U.S. Constitution.
Conclusion of the US Constitution Critique
If you have read this far or even glanced through this crazy hocus-pocus hodge podge of Articles, Sections Clauses and supersedence; you must begin to wonder why this country is not messed up worse than it is No Native American (American Indian) should ever have to look at the Declaration of Independence calling them savages and read a Constitution that excludes them and be citizens of the nation with that same constitution. No African Americans should have to read articles of the constitution of a nation they are born citizens of that allowed slavery, even if those articles have been superseded by amendments. The Constitution did not protect American born descendants of Japanese heritage during WWII, or the Chinese immigrants who worked on the railroads 150 years ago. The Constitution has not ever protected European immigrants from ruthless bankers and does not protect them from bankers and corporate factory farming competition or moving the factories they worked in over seas to increase the bottom line of the investor class. You may never have thought the constitution has failed us until now when we the vast majority of all races and all backgrounds must join together and make a change for the better.
Constitutional Contradictions and Inadequacies
The Electoral College as they are called although ‘college’ is never mentioned in the Constitution is contradictory to the meaning of a republican form of government. When the electorate chosen by the government chooses the president against the majority of the popular vote, that government does not meet the definition of a constitutional republic. Republicans can argue that if the majority chooses the president LA and New York will choose the president until they are blue in the face, they are wrong and a well organised majority will no longer put up with this buffoonery.
There is no constitutional or otherwise mechanism for the Congress to arrest or restrain anybody nor to restrain the executive branch from unconstitutionally used powers of arrest. Therefore it does not matter if they write the laws once there is a president that does not abide by the Constitution or the laws because the President has the power to arrest them but congress does not have the power to arrest the president or anybody he does not give them the permission to the congress to arrest anyone period.
Republican Form of Government
Law Suit, those acting as our government are depriving the majority of our Constitutionally guaranteed right to a republican form of government under Article 4, Section 4.
The loser of the popular vote won the election We therefore have experienced a constitutional a constitutional dysfunctionality because: Article 4, Section 4 guarentees us, each state, a republican form of government. The meaning of republican is among other things: relating to or based on a form of government in which representatives are elected and there is no king or queen. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/republican, 1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a republic. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/republican A republic is: a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch. https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=republic 1.a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/republic
What is a Republican Government? :The power of government is held by the people. The people give power to leaders they elect to represent them and serve their interests. The representatives are responsible for helping all the people in the country, not just a few people.
Therefore since according to Article 2, an appointed group of people in each state choose the President, what we have here is conflicting articles and sections within the constitution itself. I would say that the articles that define the government as a republic which signifies representatives are to be elected, chosen by the majority would out weigh an article that is about mechanisms of operation rather than the big picture. Constitutional deficiency contradictory articles and mechanisms used to deprive the people of a republican form of government.
No member of any governmental office elected or otherwise shall hold any office beyond completion of the term they hold during the time they reach the age which they are eligible for retirement.? Not sure ?
There is nothing in the Constitution given any rights or privileges to minors. We need Articles and clauses giving certain right to the children of our nation.
Instead of fighting each other for power and wealth, it is time for our leaders to plan for our collective health and well being and our long term survival. The first step is to define and assess the impact, the damage humans are causing to natural biodiversity of the living planet. Contrary to our culture based on fiat money hierarchy would lead us to believe, the biosphere supplies everything we need to live. Nothing in life is as simple as elite leaders would like to present our problems and issues as being, nothing is cut and dry able to be dealt with in a single yes or no decision. We need honest accurate data to provide a basis of information necessary to establish a directive, a mandate to begin changing our culture and lifestyles to prevent the certain disaster that continues to happen without changes. So now let’s consider the human population density demographics. How many square miles of land are there on Earth and how many people are there so we can determine an area per person if the land was evenly distributed?
The Global Warming and climate change movement are a disservice to people who care about the overall human environmental impact on Earth. In the land area which is now the United States, there were millions of buffalo and through division of the herd with the railroad and hunting to deplete the Native People’s food supply and livelihood; buffaloes we almost driven to extinction and will never have the genetic diversity they once had. That happened over 100 years ago. Compared to then our overall impact upon the nature of the planet has become like a disease to the Planet, like a cancer is to a human.
According to Wikipedia exposed land area above water is 57.51 million sq mi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth . The human population as of 2019 is estimated to be 7.8 billion https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/. So to get the average per person land availability we divide miles by people equals .00737 sq miles per person and to get a understandable figure we multiply the square miles by 640 acres per square mile and we have about 4.7 acres. In the United States we have 3.797 million miles https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_and_territories_by_area , and a human population of ruffly 329 million meaning if the land was equally divided we have .0115 sq mi per person which is 7.4 acres per person.
Now let’s look at the Earth’s 10 largest cities,
Google Earth photos of cities from space.:
1.Tokyo (Population: 37,435,191)
2.Delhi (Population: 29,399,141)
3.Shanghai (Population: 26,317,104)
4.Sao Paulo (Population: 21,846,507)
5.Mexico City (Population: 21,671,908)
6.Cairo (Population: 20,484,965)
7.Dhaka (Population: 20,283,552)
8.Mumbai (Population: 20,185,064)
9.Beijing (Population: 20,035,455)
10. Osaka (Population: 19,222,665)
That is only about 200 million people of the total 7.8 billion estimated total human population of Earth. There are about 500 cities with over a million people, so the rural density while not all over powering like a cancer of Earth which cities look like from satellites is still a great affect on the biosphere and the natural diversity of life on Earth. Human caused global warming is scientifically undeniable yet the total environmental impact of humans on the planet makes the global warming issue a small concern in comparison.
Then there is the propaganda spreading ideology that ever growing human population is the only way to go, so instead of obeying natural rules such as can be studied on closed system experiments with ever increasing dominant species population which eventually result in depletion of resources, they rely on false human economic ideology of unlimited infinite growth. I saw a recent editorial about how disastrous China’s slowing of population grown is, how arrogant how ridiculous counter-intuitive and intellectually empirically blind does a person have to be to get their writing published in our propaganda networks of rabid capitalism? https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/01/17/world/asia/china-population-crisis.html What sort of propaganda is an under-population bomb? https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/18/opinion/sunday/the-chinese-population-crisis.html
This chapter is obviously the most depressing but at the same time an area of human impact that can be changed toward the positive. All observations and statistics point to human impact being the reason behind extinction of plants and animals is now at a rate of near 1000 times the background natural rate do to human impact. https://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/biodiversity/elements_of_biodiversity/extinction_crisis/
So what life will look like on planet Earth depends largely upon our actions here in the present and near future. If we are not aware of what our impact will be 100 years from now lat alone 100 thousand, we are not aware at all.
The Internet, computers and cell phones have an additional good and bad bipolar effect on human culture and related impact on our environment, as much as the word oxymoron describes things with both good and bad qualities in a negative light as a sort of logical fallacy when in fact, the vast majority of human thought and activities do have both positive and negative results. Academia, capitalistic education frowns on dialectic debate and reasoning in favor of monolithic hierarchical organization. It is up to us, people who believe we can positively influence the likelihood of increasing our collective health well being and insure our long term survival. This requires accurate unbiased statistics and information from which to base our knowledge plans and actions upon.
Google Earth which is a vast collection of photos of the Earth pieced together can give us an unbiased view of human presence and impact on the planet.
It is easier to get people to believe in a lie than it is to get them to believe they have been deceived.
What is ‘The West’?
The following is a historical definition of the use of ‘The West’ provided by Wikipedia with sources.
The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and states, depending on the context, most often including at least parts of Europe, Australasia, and the Americas. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated. The Western world is also known as the Occident (from the Latin word occidens, “sunset, West”), in contrast to the Orient (from the Latin word oriens, “rise, East”), or Eastern world. It might mean the Northern half of the North–South divide.
Ancient Greece[a] and Ancient Rome[b] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization—Greece having heavily influenced Rome—the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy, science, aesthetics and art, building designs and proportions, architecture; the latter due to its influence on law, warfare, governance, republicanism, engineering and religion. Western civilization is also strongly associated with Christianity, which is in turn shaped by Hellenistic philosophy, Judaism and Roman culture. In the modern era, Western culture has been heavily influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions. Through extensive imperialism, colonialism and Christianization by Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries, and later exportation of mass culture, much of the rest of the world has been extensively influenced by Western culture, in a phenomenon often called Westernization.
So, much of the historical meaning, the use of the adjective ‘the’ and the word ‘west’ have been connected to the meaning of civilization, industrial and scientific advancement while in realty much of it is connected to government and religious sanctioned hegemony, royalty and class systems of family dominance over nature’s resources and worker supplied goods and services. The use of the term, “The West” as something going back to Ancient Greece includes a lot of war and all round dysfunction that while stable enough to increase our human population due to better farming techniques, shelter and improved medicine can hardly be considered civilization when you consider the place of women, the slavery, the methods of punishment like hanging on a cross or poll, imperialism, all the methods of torture, the crusades, the Spanish Inquisition to the conquistadors. That is why I propose calling the place formerly known as the United States, “The New West” as in a new form of government in the Western Hemisphere.
Declaration of Interdependence.
We are told until beyond the point where we are able to accept or reject such important historical happening of our own accord, that the founding fathers of the United States are to be immortalized due to their great wisdom, brother and sisterhood reflected in their writing and signing of the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution being the documents our nation’s government is to be founded upon. If we are to study the documents themselves and the actions of those involved, we can come to no other conclusion that this government was a farce leaving us to be subjects of an oligarchic system that has proven itself no better than being under the governance they claim to have overthrown. Therefore the entities involved in the structure and system known as the United States government are illegitimate. It is long past time for the majority of well meaning people who share humanistic as well as Christian doctrines of goodwill and love toward fellow humans, fellow country folk and nature itself demand change that can be nothing less then the development and installation of a new government in the land once called the ‘United States’, on the continent once called ‘America’.
Amerigo Vespucci, whom America is named after, searched for gold, made war and took slaves. That is not the kind of person we want our continent named after. The best name I can find for what is now called the United States of America for now is Vinland or Vineland. We should have a naming contest so the name of our nation can be chosen by the majority who vote for names submitted. The name shall also be voted on, union of the peoples of middle north america, what ever I think it should be called Vine Land or find a native name from before European settlement that sounds good. Also, although it was used comically by the Marx Brothers in their 1933 movie ‘Duck Soup’, I really like “Freedonia” as a name for the former United States. According to Wikipedia, people of the new United States used ‘Freedonia’ to name their new nation right after the Revolutionary war. I have since decided that I like “The West” as the name for the country formerly known as the United States.
Now as far as the signers of the US Constitution and founding fathers actions during the beginnings of the United States Government, 47 out of 60 of them owned slaves at one time in their lives. Indians, Native Peoples, were not recognized as citizens or humans on the same level as themselves, they declared the native people to be ‘merciless savages’.
Women were marginalized in a patriarchal system which had no place for them.
They signed over the right of a nation to govern themselves when they gave a private monopoly over the means of trade of goods and services to a private international group of banker profiteers who view war, killing people and taking their resources as a legitimate and the most profitable business humans are capable of undertaking. Although I am not a religious person in the popularly held sense of the word, the Hebrew, Christian, Islam sense, to define the mode of operation and the acts and historical outcome of their deeds as Satanic is by far more accurate labeling their minions as a Christian nation. A person could elaborate on the details of these truths for several lifetimes and fill several libraries. There are many well versed ‘town criers’, highly educated in the presentation of sources of information in the form of written, archaeological, photographic and even video evidence enough for anybody of sound mind to come to the conclusion of the criminal nature and the damage to humanity and ecology the rule by minds of infinite greed has done. I leave this to others to further define the crimes I accuse this vast loose knit group of conspirators that remain in power to this day.
Although some of these individuals collectively and individually will use violence to maintain their plutocratic autocracy, this war they started is one which has to be fought in mind and spirit rather than a violent overthrow. If they were doing even a mediocre job of running the world we would remain loyal trusting that this class, that owns our governance, had our best interests in mind or even marginally in mind. We will do our utmost to remove them from power through their own recognition of the wrongs of their ancestors and to surrender under their own accord. We will give them verbal and written warnings if this fails we will attempt to retrain them through means nearest to nonviolent as possible, for individuals we have reason to believe these methods will not bring them to accept rule by a constitutional democratic form of government there will be no limit to the force we will use against them other than apprehending or killing them in a time and place likely to cause the least amount if injury to innocent people caught up in such a group and protect all people not involved in the group who do not accept or respect or accept the results of a government whose authority is derived from a public national referendum once it is voted upon and becomes the law of the land.
The concept of national self determination
Despite United Nations support of the ideal of self determination, no nation, no people other than those connected to the privately owned monetary system monopoly have even an inkling of self determination. So to familiarize ourselves with the term, ‘self determination’ or ‘self-determination’ we will start out with dictionary meanings: Self-determination: The process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government. (Oxford), Self-determination: 1: free choice of one’s own acts or states without external compulsion
2: determination by the people of a territorial unit of their own future political status (Merriam-Webster), and here are a few other references for further study concerning the meaning and application of Self-determination for additional research:
http://www.c100tibet.org/Self-Determination_UN.html, https://unpo.org/article/4957 , https://www.un.org/en/sections/un-charter/un-charter-full-text/ , https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/
1. The persons so elected to United States Government by the established parties and methods, to become Senators, Representatives and the President, once elected, have supreme authority to the extent that they currently do, and may continue to rule with little or no adherence to the United States Constitution except for as they themselves and the Supreme Court Judges the Congress has chosen, interpret that Constitution.
2. Reinstate the United States Constitution in it’s current wording as the supreme law of the land and a basis of our Constitutional Republic including the regulation of commerce rather than corporations buying the government and including a public ownership of a banking and currency system etc., restoring the United States form of Government to that of a constitutional republic.
3. A newly revised Constitution and form of government is necessary, we will live under a combination of one and two keeping the social order in place for two years, with special attention toward adherence to a combination of the current Constitution, international law and common law during the transition period while we write a New Constitution of a new government of the North Central region of the largest Continent in the Western Hemisphere, formerly known as the United States to be known as the West or New West or any name chosen by majority citizen’s vote. At the conclusion of the two year organizational period we will have a two choice referendum on whether to ratify the constitution of the New West by simple majority as to be written.
The organizing of the west is not Marxist or communist. A universal means of exchange of goods and services can still be a great service to humanity. While we will allow every person a minimum standard of living as a right, of the highest level possible through our collective efforts, we recognize that this who work harder and more wisely an efficiently, those who provide the best plans and organization will be compensated at rates relating to their service to less capable individuals and to society as a whole. Taking this way of rewarding service into consideration the rights of private property shall not be diminished except for causes criminal behavior as defined in our criminal codes and statutes and only after the accused is found guity.
There eventually will be no or little taxation, more exactly there will be no federal national tax because the government will run on value based money, money that is printed in relationship to the value of goods and services added to our collective wealth which is an indication of our health, well being and projected longevity. There will probably be certain user fees to balance fairness between those who use certain services with people who do not use those services which are above the minimum services which are free. Except for benefits and services received from government workers or in the case of being accused of a crime people could live their whole lives without any interaction between them and the government although most people will desire services and many people will desire to provide services to others to obtain money as a universal exchange of goods and services for a lifestyle above the minimum. Yes just as now even regardless of work even people in jail are due a minimum amount of decency and respect food and shelter even when accused or found guilty of a crime.
Private money will be controlled by private interests to similar extent as it has been so as long as private banking instruments, Wall Street style private investment is popular ti will remain part of the economic mix so long as they also accept publicly printed money on par value with their private money. Publicly owned central bank, publicly elected officials will decide if rate of private monetary expansion discount fractional reserve practices. All administration(cabinet) directors are now called secretaries and are elected by majority citizen vote, everyone is allowed to vote regardless of sex, incarceration ect. Likewise everyone has a right not to vote.
Guarantee to private property as well as private finances along side public finances. Once the benefit of a publicly owned portion of the monetary system is realized after the West established it other countries will do similar things, until these changes are made the same international banker owners of the monetary system will remain in charge of international business. The acceptance of a national value based currency on an international level is not guaranteed, throughout history the international bankers have proven themselves ruthless.
I thought and wrote about banking and money beginning with an undergraduate English composition paper. I became familiar with and like economic philosophies of Richard Wolf and Michael Parenti. Yet a relatively unknown person named Kent Welton, a musician polymath collected information and made the case for a Publicly owned central bank. While Mr. Welton, who passed on in 2019, and myself will quote Eustace Mullins and his book, Secrets of the Federal Reserve, I for one do not share Mr. Mullins racial views nor any white supremacist views he my have expressed and held, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eustace_Mullins. We must separate the fact that Jews have been involved in the ownership of money systems for many centuries from any allegations that these facts, the fact of a royal monetary system owner class from race and religion.
The privately owned central banking system has ruled the world almost exclusively from behind the scenes since the founding of the Bank of England in 1694 and probably longer. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oldest_banks_in_continuous_operation
With private banking coexistence meaning legal tender can be created both by the government based on the value of work to maintain and improve our civil society and through a discount on currency based on private individual and corporate ownership. The goal is to allow private business as much freedom as possible to continue to achieve high materialistic standards of living that the profit motive did have a part in bringing about this facet of human civilization which will continue to help provide a certain level of a collective quality of life. If the privately run and owned hierarchical profit driven community becomes over the top greedy unmanageable and even criminal as it has in the past; the government, though national referendum can vote to limit or even eliminate the private facet of the monetary equation all together.
We are all of far more equal worth than the current socio-economic strata
Joe Biden and his campaign staff need your money, without money to back up his lies, they want you to believe you will be stuck with Trump’s lies for another 4 years. This is a false dichotomy, both the demolican and republicrat divisions of the rabid-capitalist corporate party of monetary system monopolizing weapons dealing war profiteering ZioNazi party are the problem rather than the solution
Presently the “New West” is a work of fiction. It is a Utopian place of fully implemented Direct Participatory Democracy. Money, our means of exchange of our goods and services will be publicly owned. The vote, the referendum, the recall of public workers mandated by the majority will be the supreme law of the land under a constitution that protects minorities by giving equal rights to all citizens.
I actually first envisioned the New West in the late ’70s and wrote a song expressing it in simple terms titled Western Dream. For now, The New West is a fictional place. It is willed to exist where the United States of American now exists.
Even if in this form, as part of a book, suggesting the form and workings of a much needed within that land area and of the people formerly known as the citizens of the United States, constitution writing is not something to be taken lightly, it is the foundation of and the measure of how civilized or uncivilized a nation is to become. Therefore prior to the outline of what will become the Constitution of the New West, we will reference and study several modern constitutions, charters of rights and similar documents to incorporate the best features and guarantees of individual rights, freedoms and equal justice; reference and include the best governmental organizational as we can find throughout such documents old and new tat are available as resources to us. During the transition period from the United States to the West, to keep a resemblance to order, we will take steps to enforce the Constitution for the first time in US history. For a time period of let’s say 12 years, the mediators will by law, have to consider the United States Constitution as a defense in individual criminal cases but no corporate rights will be applicable because corporations are not people.
The Organization of Liberty on the Western Continent: An Oration Delivered …By Thomas Starr King, this is added here as historical proof of ‘Western Continent’ being used to define America although the writer does also refer to America within this:
Sample Constitutions to help write the Constitution of the New West:
Although I think I am on the right track here I also know that my mind and time is limited. This writing, this is a sample, an example of what the real Constitution of the New West may be started from and take form if it ever does at all. Constitution writing should be an important collectively organized undertaking. Every aspect of it should remain valid as the basis upon which every law is written and upon their validity is determined. Was we know from failed constitutions and governments that did not abide by egalitarian principles the past established governments claimed they were based upon, the challenges, the failures and successes of opposing parties in courts, just how important a constitution is to the framework of human constructed governmental authorities.
Article One, Naming of the Nation , Preamble, Statement of Purpose
Article 2, Citizens are the legislative Branch, People’s majority mandate
Article three, administrative executive branch
Article 4, mediation (Judicial) Branch
Article 5, Governmental Organization
Article 6 peoples collective Sovereignty
Article 7 concerning money
Article 8 inalienable Rights and Freedoms of every citizen. Citizens Rights and Responsibilities. Natural Rights
Article 9 relating to military defense, War
Article One, Naming of the Nation , Preamble, Statement of Purpose
Naming of the first modern democratically organized nation known to humanity.
The West, being the two largest Continents, North and South in the Western Hemisphere formerly known as America, being the North and South Continents of such nomenclature are now to be officially simply referred to and known as The West or Northern and Southern Continents of The West. The middle north to south area of the North Western Continent formerly known as the United States of America will for the time being shall be known as the New West. Even the naming of this country itself will be determined by the majority or super majority, what ever decision is made the majority of the people who exercise their natural democratic right to participate.
Constitution of Vinland or the constitution of Freedonia, or the constitution of The West, or of The New West(we will hold a name choosing contest and vote on the name of our method of collective organization, the word government is too authoritative)
Definition of government
1: the body of persons that constitutes the governing authority of a political unit or organization: such as
a: the officials comprising the governing body of a political unit and constituting the organization as an active agency
The government was slow to react to the crisis.
b. capitalized : the executive branch of the U.S. federal government
: a small group of persons holding simultaneously the principal political executive offices of a nation or other political unit and being responsible for the direction and supervision of public affairs:
(1): ADMINISTRATION sense 4b
(2): such a group in a parliamentary system constituted by the cabinet or by the ministry
2a: the organization, machinery, or agency through which a political unit exercises authority and performs functions and which is usually classified according to the distribution of power within it
She works for the federal government.
b: the complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out
3: the act or process of governing
specifically : authoritative direction or control
4: the continuous exercise of authority over and the performance of functions for a political unit : RULE
5: POLITICAL SCIENCE
studied economics and government
6a: the office, authority, or function of governing
b. obsolete : the term during which a governing official holds office
7: obsolete : moral conduct or behavior : DISCRETION
Pronunciation /ˈɡʌv(ə)nˌm(ə)nt/ /ˈɡʌvəm(ə)nt/
1treated as singular or plural The group of people with the authority to govern a country or state; a particular ministry in office.
‘the government’s economic record’
‘successive Labour governments’
More example sentencesSynonyms
1.1mass noun The system by which a state or community is governed.
‘a democratic form of government’
More example sentences
1.2mass noun The action or manner of controlling or regulating a state, organization, or people.
‘rules for the government of the infirmary’
The relation between a governed and a governing word.
Middle English from Old French governement, from governer (see govern).
Autonomous Collective as an alternative to government?
After considering Vineland and Feedonia as names for the new nation, I now for the moment like simply the West as in the western hemisphere. It is politically neutral and while rooted in English, has international geographical significance.
The West, being the two largest Continents, North and South in the Western Hemisphere formerly known as America, being the North and South Continents of such nomenclature are now to be officially simply referred to and known as The West or Northern and Southern Continents of The West.
The land area formerly known as the United States shall be known as the New West because in this land and of this people the denunciation of what the United States and America stood for came into being and was peacefully brought to an end.
Preamble will be part of this first article.
The morals of the majority once educated to the historical significance of the name America will not want their homeland or land of birthright to be named ‘America’. The origins of the name America being a variation of the name Amerigo Vespucci an explorer who captured and sold native inhabitants of the Western Continent into slavery, people he found living here in the West at the time of him supposedly discovering them in their land. The United States government was founded by African slave owning land lords who practiced genocide against Indigenous Peoples, their methods of rule have finally be recognized by an organized majority to be found criminal inhuman and intolerable to the point where we do not desire to be known by that name. Therefore until further notice, until we the majority determine by popular vote any different or more preferable name, the territory and nation, the land area, the mid North Western Continent land mass, the government, previously known as the United States of America will now be known simply as, ‘The New West’ or “The West”.
Unless repealed or modified or stricken, all US Code will be considered law until replaced by new law. For a period of 10 years after codification of law under the new constitution, old law of the US code can be considered in the court only in the defense of those accused and not against them. Corporations will not be recognized in courts of law within the New National Government of the West.
As we proceed toward the revolution of the New West, we will list specific codes and laws that will be nullified on the day the ratification vote is accepted. Corporate person-hood and many laws will be repealed upon the first day of the establishment of the authority of the autonomous collective of the New West
Article 2, Citizens are the legislative Branch
People’s Government Assembly Counsel of the West
Every born citizen has an equal undeniable human right to vote for or against changes to law and appropriations we are all to live under and within. It is the government’s responsibility to register every citizen as a voter and offer various methods of identification including DNA, facial recognition or any other method that becomes both feasible and popular among the citizens
majority and super majority are the highest authority of the land.
It is the right of every citizen over 16? to vote for governmental (officers) secretaries and stewards and it is also our right to vote on legislation and appropriation. Just as voting is a right not voting and not participating are the individual’s right.
Every person designated as a citizen whether born or naturalized has an unalienable right to vote for all Secretarial officers and the Steward of their district, it is the responsibility of the government to recognize each citizen and upon their request access the data proving they are a citizen. Non citizens can be responsible for the cost of false applications. State and local voting districts can require proof of residence and citizenship. Everyone has a choice of and responsibility of establishing their identity, picture and fingerprints or select any future available identification methods
National Referendum, no confidence rights and greater role in legislation and appropriation are a natural progression.
Section 2 The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. No other law or government action can supersede the provisions of the Constitution.(sa1996)
Every person of adult age let say 18 has the right to vote on the law and appropriations they are to live under and depending of the constitutional sensitivity or the impact the said law and appropriation, public simple greater than 50% majority or 2/3? or 4/5? majority to demonstrate that the legislation is based on an accepted and well documented public majority. A simple majority national referendum vote will become law, unless it is challenged on the grounds that said law would violate the rights of a minority group or several individuals from several religious, political, religious, economic or ethnic(racial) groups. In such a contested proposal of law or appropriation a complaint to be determined valid before the vote is to take place can result in the need for a 2/3 majority to pass. If such a vote is contested and the court of law the mediators also agree with the complainants, yet it appears that a super majority still may desire the law or appropriation suspect of adversely affecting a minority, a 4/5ths or super majority can overrule both the complainants and the Court. If a law is established by super majority no class action will protect a group but individuals can claim infringement and if they win their individual case it only applies to the protected individual, if they lose and they are not found in any way criminally liable for their actions against the will of the majority, they will be free to leave the state or country to go to where ever the behavior that is prohibited or un-prohibited as the case may be.
No citizen can be punished for choosing not to vote
Article inalienable Rights and Freedoms of every citizen.
Section One The highest authority of the land, the people, the nation, The New West is the Royal Court of majority public opinion. Every two years there will be an election to fill vacant offices staggered departmental secretary appointments by public majority vote and referendum ballet plebiscite recall and repeal issues and constitutional issues requiring 2/3rds rather than a simple majority. To prevent any notion of tyranny of the majority, that majority will agree to abide by and not alter articles and provisions of this Constitution pertaining to protection of the rights of protected minority racial, ethnic, religious, cultural groups and individual rights to live by and practice their diverse ways of life for the first 20 years except by 80% of the total population and over 50% of the class or group that may be negatively affected. Unless those ways affect the rights of other groups so negatively that it prevents others from practicing their cultural tradition and ritual to the same extent. 1% of the number of votes cast to win the simple majority vote of the secretary at large in the previous election can petition their government to question citizens, to poll them, to survey them the entire voting citizenship through computer and USPS, if 50 % or greater of people who participate express desire for change, the question will be on the annual ballot.
The legislative branch shall become one house rather than a senate and house of representatives. The title for the elected position the holder this office as the manager of a district’s vote shall be called the district ‘Steward’. The size of a federal district will start at 500,000 people including children. That person’s job, the Steward’s job is to present the pros and cons of every proposed law and appropriation before them and to count the votes of every person who chooses to participate in legislation before the people in the Assembly (house) of stewards. It is their duty to tabulate the votes and enter the majority vote of the district. Each district will be able to bring a number of proposals before the entire nation though their Stewards. Encourage participation in voting on public voting on law and appropriation. Every person above the age of 18 shall be given the opportunity to vote no matter what crime they are accused of whether they are found guilty or innocent are incarcerated on parole or probation.
Ultimate power is reserved by and remains with the people all governmental collective national decisions and actions shall be determined and undertaken only with majority approval.
The majority shall have a voice through a national referendum process and when laws enacted by over 66% or will it be 80% of those who take part in the public election shall be the highest law of the land.
Any person has the right to challenge the law such enacted as it affects them individually because of race tradition religion political affiliation….decided on an individual basis. We as a nation agree not to enact laws that are directed to a particular race ethnicity and culture that agrees to act within the constitution.
1% of the entire population, represented by eligible voters of age of 18 or older or 5% of the voting population, being the number of voters who participated in the last most recent election by means of an independent signature collection can call for a national referendum on any law or appropriation of money, resources, public servant promotion or dismissal and have is voted upon in the annual election.
Ultimate power is reserved by and remains with the people all governmental collective national decisions and actions shall be determined and undertaken only with majority approval.
The majority shall have a voice through a national referendum process and when laws enacted by over 80% of those who take part in the public election shall be the highest law of the land.
Any person has the right to challenge the law such enacted as it affects them individually because of race tradition religion political affiliation….decided on an individual basis. We as a nation agree not to enact laws that are directed to a particular race ethnicity and culture that agrees to act within the constitution.
One branch of the government is the people ourselves, the will of the people legislates to the Secretarial Administrative branch. Each branch has the power to restrain the actions of any public officer in any branch by the same legal code of ethics authority every citizen is subject to, equal access to the instruments and officers of the enforcement agencies who answer to all three divisions of our government. The legislative branch shall become one house rather than a senate and house of representatives. The title for this office shall be Steward. That person’s job is to present the pros and cons of every proposed law and appropriation before them. It is their duty to tabulate the votes and enter the majority vote of the district. Each district will be able to bring a number of proposals before the entire nation though their Stewards. Encourage participation in voting on public voting on law and appropriation. Every person above the age of 18 shall be given the opportunity to vote no matter what crime they are accused of whether they are found guilty or innocent are incarcerated on parole or probation.
Ultimate power is reserved by and remains with the people all governmental collective national decisions and actions shall be determined and undertaken only with majority approval as determined by national referendum and direct participatory democratic means.
Being that the United States Legislative branch of government became corrupted to intolerable proportions despite their being two houses a senate and a house of representatives, there will be no actual representatives, there will be Stewards of the people’s vote elected whose responsibility will be to encourage voting on all laws and appropriations before the people. To inform people of the pros and cons of each piece of legislation, to enter a vote for their district in the event that no one else votes,
The majority shall have a voice through a national referendum process and when laws enacted by over 66% of those who take part in the public election shall be the highest law of the land.
The mediation branch of government cannot overrule 2/3rds vote but can give relief to individuals and parties that apply for relief on the grounds of racial, ethnic, religious , political or violation of basic human rights guaranteed.
Any person has the right to challenge the law such enacted as it affects them individually because of race tradition religion political affiliation….decided on an individual basis. We as a nation agree not to enact laws that are directed to a particular race ethnicity and culture that agrees to act within the constitution.
1% of the entire population, represented by eligible voters of age of 18 or older or 5% of the voting population, 5% of the total number of people who voted in the prior election, by means of an independent signature collection can call for a national referendum on any law or appropriation of money, resources, public servant promotion or dismissal and have is voted upon in the annual election
Every citizen at the time of the first and any future ratification referendum vote has a right to participate in that vote and be counted toward simple majority and super majority vote on all law and appropriations we are to live under and within.
While voters may receive some decided compensation for participating in the workings of everyone’s government, there shall be no penalty against citizens who choose not to vote
Every citizen has the right to vote on all legislation and appropriations which are undertaken during the daily operation of our government, the government where every recognized citizen is an equal stake holder.
majority and super majority are the highest authority of the land.
Section One The highest authority of the land, the people, the nation, The New West is the Royal Court of majority public opinion. Every two years there will be an election to fill vacant offices staggered departmental secretary appointments by public majority vote and referendum ballet plebiscite recall and repeal issues and constitutional issues requiring 2/3rds rather than a simple majority. To prevent any notion of tyranny of the majority, that majority will agree to abide by and not alter articles and provisions of this Constitution pertaining to protection of the rights of protected minority racial, ethnic, religious, cultural groups and individual rights to live by and practice their diverse ways of life for the first 20 years except by 80% of the total population and over 50% of the class or group that may be negatively affected. Unless those ways affect the rights of other groups so negatively that it prevents others from practicing their cultural tradition and ritual to the same extent. 1% of the number of votes cast to win the simple majority vote of the secretary at large in the previous election can petition their government to question citizens, to poll them, to survey them the entire voting citizenship through computer and USPS, if 50 % or greater of people who participate express desire for change, the question will be on the annual ballot.
Section 2 The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. No other law or government action can supersede the provisions of the Constitution.(sa1996)
Every person of adult age let say 18 has the right to vote on the law and appropriations they are to live under and depending of the constitutional sensitivity or the impact the said law and appropriation, public simple greater than 50% majority or 2/3 or 4/5 majority to demonstrate that the legislation is based on an accepted and well documented public majority.
Article three, administrative executive branch
The Administrative Branch The highest public servant of the government shall be the Secretary At Large or First Secretary who administers the will of the people. Secretary General is too militaristic. The departmental officers shall be named Secretary of such department such as currently are named, secretary of defense, secretary of treasury, secretary of environmental protection, secretary of health and human services etc, etc. The head of every major department shall be voted into office by general public election every 4 years and they will be staggered so they are not all up for election every year.
The Administrative Branch The highest public servant of the government shall be the Secretary At Large ( or First Secretary) who administers the will of the people. Secretary General is too militaristic sounding. The departmental officers shall be named Secretary of such department such as currently are named, secretary of defense, secretary of treasury, secretary of environmental protection, secretary of health and human services etc, etc. The head of every major department shall be voted into office by general public election every 6 years (4 0r 6?) and they will be staggered so they are not all up for election every year.
More or less departmental secretaries may be established by need or by consolidation to keep the government running smoothly and efficiently. Each cabinet member will be elected For the time being we will try this list taken from United States list of cabinet executive cabinet positions with the exception of vice president , Secretary of Homeland security is redundant, No official elected chief of staff, because we no longer need such positions:
In order of succession to the First Secretary:
Secretary of the State
Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of Defense
Secretary of Mediation (Justice)
Secretary Department of the Interior
Secretary: Department of Agriculture
Secretary: Department of Commerce
Secretary: Department of Labor
Secretary: Department of Health and Human Services
Secretary: Department of Housing and Urban Development
Secretary: Department of Transportation
Secretary of the Department of Energy
Secretary: Department of Education
Secretary: Department of Veterans Affairs
Secretary: Environmental Protection Agency
Secretary: Office of Management & Budget
Secretary of International Trade
Secretary : United States Mission to the United Nations
Secretary: Council of Economic Advisers
Secretary: Small Business Administration
Ambassadors will be chosen by the First Secretary and the Secretary of State with the Secretary representing the West in the United Nations braking a tie in the case of disagreement between the two.
The Stewards can change this list without holding a public vote, but if the public so chooses by raising signatures to cause the referendum process to over ride such decisions concerning the number of and duties of each elected secretarial office.
The highest officer directly below the people’s majority mandate is the Secretary At Large, this person, elected every 4 years, overseas all governmental operations as the secretary of secretaries, he can hire and fire or is as a chief officer above all 15 departmental secretaries which are elected for four year intervals. The SAL can hire or fire makes temporary appointments in case of incapacity reprimand of elected departmental secretaries. The answer to the SAL until any dependency not resolved by them is brought before the people for recall or referendum at an annual public vote or as a stock or share, stake holder’s meeting, where unsolved issues, questions or constitutional variations are brought up for public majority or public super majority vote. The SAL will be chief commander of the military only until the next election or an emergency election is called to show solidarity in the event of an attack by foreign or domestic enemies of the collective. All secretaries answer to the people. Any citizen can state a case alleging impropriety or prejudice or damages against a secretary and petition the people for a recall or fire him relieve them from duty annually or overturn a SAL firing.
Article 4, mediation (Judicial) Branch
relating to disagreement resolution administration, judicial branch, also called the court of law.
The whole idea of human judges has been corrupt throughout all of history, yet through the course of human events, a knowledgeable authority independent of the administrative and legislative powers of government has proven to be a worthy and necessary division of power, to bring disagreements into the public court and act as intermediaries between any two parties in disagreement and dispute , one who feels injured by the other party, to mediate from a neutral ground, to establish a sense of fairness.
Sections relating to judicial administration. The supreme court judges will be elected by public citizen simple majority vote to 12 year terms and the judges will choose lower court appointments with the approval of Stewards subject to public citizen discretion where if there are sufficient complaints and desire, the steward’s district shall vote on appeals and circuit judges. Judges are subject to all laws and no one is above the law,
The Supreme Mediator counsel. Any and all decisions of persons employed as professionals responsible for mediating deciding all disputes pubic or private and the establishment of protocol and interpretation of constitutional law and precedence is subject to the discretion and will of the majority through a method where 3 million people or what ever number shall be 1% or more of the total population can petition to ask the royal court of public opinion to overturn the judicial mediator’s officer’s decision.
Whether criminally accused or in a civil disagreement the defendant or the complainant can choose to have the case decided by a mediator or a jury of their piers.
The verdict will be either a judgment of innocence or as a danger to society. Every human deserves a minimum amount of human dignity no matter what crimes they are found guilty of committing. Through all of human history punishing people in the name of the state has not deterred crime, it has made us, members of societies under control of the state, guilty of crimes. Yes when people are separated from society because of their actions their diet will be institutional, they may be isolated from others only because of physical violence within the institution or stealing, or lying about such incidences.
They can file a petition to demand the government to cease and desist or apply to hold a public vote a referendum to determine the will of the majority.
We, the new nation, will become a signatory to the world court, with reservations being, if the world court is determined to be prejudice, predicted to be depriving a Vineland citizen of their Constitutional rights or judging and group collectively where some members did not partake in the prohibited acts that other individuals in the group are being accused, etc.
Article 5, Governmental Organization
Even before humans had the writing that we can read we had alphas therefore even to this day even if we can vote from time to time we need to have one person in charge of the daily affairs of the government. That person alone from within the government can bring an issue to public vote . External to high level government employees a million people affected or unaffected can propose that their issue be considered and of those many things then if it is not solved and they raise 25% like 30 million it will be on the ballot?
Unless repealed or modified or stricken, or specifically overruled by the New West Constitution all US Code will be considered law until replaced by new law. For a period of 10 years after codification of law under the new constitution, old law of the US code can be considered in the court only in the defense of those accused and not against them.
State and local governmental authorities and municipalities rights and responsibilities. Unless by individual or group petition or complaint to the national officers for gross violation of constitutionally guaranteed rights, state law, boundaries and organization will remain in tact to provide stability and such methods of electing state and local officials will remain in affect until people organize and vote to change those state and local forms of government to meet the national standards of rights to majority public referendum, recall and organizational powers of the majority.
No person elected to government office can invest in any private corporation or individual while they are in office or during the first year after they leave office, they can invest in the equivalent of savings bonds. No government employee making a salary of more than 120K$ in 2019 money equivalent dollars shall be allowed to invest in anything except the public bank of the West.
Sections relating to Workers, Work Force, Employees conduct authority and benefits.
All elected or hired government officials are employees of the people, any individual citizen can file a complaint against any government official at any time and be subject to recall of majority of parties interested enough to cast a vote one way or another. While being employed as any officer in any office or department will be forbidden from investment in any private or corporate for profit entity private investment funding, mutual fund, stock or bond holdings, nothing other than the people’s bank at a public rate available to any citizen. This is to prevent war profiteering, and profiteering from any contractual agreement between and private contractor and the collective majority.
Chain of command
The highest office of public service will be titled Secretary-At-Large, or First Secretary.
Articles relating to Workers, Work Force, Employees conduct authority and benefits.
All elected or hired government officials are employees of the people, any individual citizen can file a complaint against any government official at any time and be subject to recall of majority of parties interested enough to cast a vote one way or another. While being employed as any officer in any office or department will be forbidden from investment in any private or corporate for profit entity private investment funding, mutual fund, stock or bond holdings, nothing other than the people’s bank at a public rate available to any citizen. This is to prevent war profiteering, and profiteering from any contractual agreement between and private contractor and the collective majority.
Section relating to secrecy
There is no reason, no legitimate purpose in secrecy between any person employed by the people of the New West, between the employees themselves or between them and any, state or municipality, within the national boundaries, any foreign governmental, public, business, organization or individual person in any matters concerning any of their responsibilities in the official capacity. In the occurrence of the discovery of a secret being told that is not inconsequential and does physical damage to, monetary damage to, or property damage to anybody, the public employee may be held personalty criminally accountable for such damages, but only reprimanded, fired or restricted demoted and an employee for the act of concealing information from the public at large. Once the person is removed from public office for such a cause they may be
within the national boundaries, any foreign governmental, public, business, organization or individual person in any matters concerning any of their responsibilities in the official capacity. In the occurrence of the discovery of a secret being told that is not inconsequential and does physical damage to, monetary damage to, or property damage to anybody, the public employee may be held personalty criminally accountable for such damages, but only reprimanded, fired or restricted demoted as an employee for the act of concealing information from the public at large. They can be restrained and face resolution and restraint including separation from society confinement.
Sections relating to military defense
We give our soldiers the authority to use any and all means possible to subdue the individuals that have chosen to use violence to achieve their goals. When the conflict ends and the danger is over, our soldiers will do everything possible to medically, physically and mentally help those who fought giving them, ensuring at least a minimum amount of human dignity, while holding them captive, imprisoning them, separating them from the grater society as long as they present a propensity to commit violence against humans and nature.
Chain of Command in the event of an attack from any foreign or domestic physical or verifiable threat of attack upon a number of individuals whether being employed by the collective or as private citizens can be simultaneously counter attacked and restrained under the authority of the Secretary at large. Any such action may be reviewed by and a complaint entered by any citizen on behalf of themselves or any human world wide to restrain or beg the government to cease and desist. They can file a petition to or apply to hold a public vote a referendum to determine the will of the majority.
Article 6 peoples collective Sovereignty
We give our soldiers the authority to use any and all means possible to subdue the individuals that have chosen to use violence to achieve their goals. When the conflict ends and the danger is over, our soldiers will do everything possible to medically, physically and mentally help those who fought giving them, ensuring at least a minimum amount of human dignity, while holding them captive, imprisoning them, separating them from the grater society as long as they present a propensity to commit violence against humans and nature.
The duty of law enforcement is not to punish it is to bring those accused of crime to the courts to be judged innocent or as a danger to society. Every human deserves a minimum amount of human dignity no matter what crimes they are charged with and even if found guilty of committing. Through all of human history punishing people in the name of the state has not deterred crime, it has made us, members of societies under control of the state, guilty of crimes. Yes when people are separated from society because of their actions their diet will be institutional, they may be isolated from others only because of physical violence within the institution or stealing, or lying about such incidences.
Section under peoples joint sovereignty
Article 7 concerning money
A system of exchange of goods, services and natural resources, being indispensable to modern civil human life must be publicly regulated and in part publicly owned in a way that does not interfere with private ownership which is recognized as a basic human right. We have a right to personal ownership of things we gain from exchange of labor, goods and services with others and with the community as a whole.
Public moneys are part of a nation’s self determination.
Universal means of trade of goods and services. Every person upon birth will be issued one share in the bank of the union, or the name of our new nation. No person shall own more than one share of the public bank. Private banks may still exist. The government does not need to borrow money, the value of the government issued currency, will be derived from the value of completion of work toward the benefit, betterment and maintenance of our nation and our people as determined by the people through Stewards of the legislative branch.
Universal method and units of exchange of goods and services. The value based currency, money printed independently from private banks issued by The New West Government to pay public governmental workers and private contractors for their goods and services provided for the benefit of all must be honored as legal tender by law including criminal and civil forfeiture for violation of national monetary currency law. All private and corporate entities operating within the boundaries of the New West which are the boundaries of the former United States of America and the individual states therein shall honor the worth of public notes issued for goods and services rendered. Private or old money system paper and coin will be recognized and be exchanged for the new currency at rates decided by publicly majority elected official monetary regulation authorities who answer to the majority being subject to recall another word for being fired by their bosses being the majority. Public monies, the public monetary system, is owned by the public directly, with each individual citizen owning one share in the new bank of the West. No person can own more than one share. No corporation or private entity or group can own any shares. Private organizations and individuals can loan old private money to borrowers. Individuals can loan out a portion of their real estate and business holdings similar to current commercial banking. For stability and ease of changing from a private banking system to a public banking system, both systems will be legal for some time unless the private system abuses it’s rights granted by the majority mandate based government of The New West. The government based upon the majority being the highest authority regulates and allows private exchange and profit rather than how the old system operated where private monetary and currency monopolizing authorities allowed the government to exist and serve the owners of the banks and corporations. The government is now a tool of organization of the will of the people.
We own these national lands but the government sells those resources to corporations who sell them back to us at a profit? Within our boarders the private owners have to accept publicly created currency based on the value of improvement of our lives. Yes, when we look at the private banking monopoly it is a legalized crime against humanity yet where to we draw the line?
Being that there is a private means of exchange of goods and services and this aspect of capitalism is a long societal standard and norm private property and private money and such rights described will not be infringed upon so long as the owner obeys this constitution to the limits which long standing common law permits. That said we the people have a right to public moneys distributed in relationship to the value of the goods and services undertook and delivered toward the common good, a value based currency based on the majority vote that decides these newly created funds are to be used for the common good.
The former US Constitution gave congress the power to coin money and regulate commerce, so if the business community does not submit to regulation and taxation under the New West they will be sanctioned appropriately for sedition and treason under the former United States Constitution and applicable United States Code so there can be no ex post facto claims raised in the Court.
Article 8 inalienable Rights and Freedoms of every citizen.
Unless one of the following amendments added to the Constitution of the government formerly known as the United States and it’s Constitution known as , “The Bill of Rights” becomes unworkable and can be said to infringe on certain citizens rights by other citizens, those so called Amendments will remain a valid part of the Constitution of the New West as guaranteed rights. (Articles I through X are known as the Bill of Rights)
Inalienable rights of every individual of every racial ethnic religious group. Below are the original ten Amendments to the US constitution that was also called the Bill of Rights. Also listed are additional Amendments concerning the official end to slavery, right of women to vote and the right to equal protection under the law. Addition to this we must establish the fact that it is the job of the police and all law enforcement agencies to serve and protect everyone on an equal basis. We also need a constitutional basis added for the rights of children. We need a constitutional basis behind laws to protect the environment.
Article [I] (Amendment 1 – Freedom of expression and religion) Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Article [II] (Amendment 2 – Bearing Arms)A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
Article [III] (Amendment 3 – Quartering Soldiers)No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Article [IV] (Amendment 4 – Search and Seizure) The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Article [V] (Amendment 5 – Rights of Persons)No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Article [VI] (Amendment 6 – Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions)In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
Article [VII] (Amendment 7 – Civil Trials)In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Article [VIII] (Amendment 8 – Further Guarantees in Criminal Cases)Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Article [IX] (Amendment 9 – Unenumerated Rights)The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Article [X] (Amendment 10 – Reserved Powers)The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Article XIII (Amendment 13 – Slavery and Involuntary Servitude)Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Affects 11 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #13
Article XIV (Amendment 14 – Rights Guaranteed: Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection) 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Article XV (Amendment 15 – Rights of Citizens to Vote)The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Ratified #15
Article [XIX] (Amendment 19 – Women’s Suffrage Rights) The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Affects 15 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #19
Police and any, all law enforcement entities will sign and swear or affirm their duty to serve and protect people’s constitutional rights and keep the peace without prejudice without regard for social economic stature. Even leaders of the past acted criminally so individually humans are self interested holding their needs and desires above those of others, that is why we need collective wisdom to determine the limits to personal will, greed and when it becomes criminal.
The duty of law enforcement is not to punish it is to bring those accused of crime to the courts to be tried by common law style courts with rules of procedure subject to change or modification by agreement between the mediation branch and the legislative branch and subject to referendum public majority over site.
All natural substances are a natural right and nobody can be charged with a crime or possession for use or possession yet the government has the right to control sales and exchange and to limit or confine such use to private places and designated places., restrain people from operation of motor vehicles and even non motorized vehicles and even being a pedestrian on certain highways while under the influence of mind altering substances..
Unalienable rights of every individual of every racial, ethnic, religious, political and socioeconomic group.
Knowing from history that any violent confrontation between any group, any economic or social competition between nations between an organized group of individuals requires those individuals to be healthy, we hereby declare that every citizen is entitled to a minimum standard of healthcare, therefore we hereby establish a national universal healthcare program. A level of professionally provided publicly funded medical healthcare will be provided to every citizen whether born or naturalized. Even aliens, foreign born humans within national or even in foreign lands under the jurisdiction of our forces will receive lesser but still humane medical treatment but may be charged monetarily and their home government or private business affiliates may also be billed for services and expenses provided. This article expresses the constitutional intent of a complex system of exchange of medical goods and services that will be defined in level of duties and benefits provided under a Code Title and under direction of the secretary of medicine.
Article 9 relating to military defense
Weapons sales and war are not the dominant industry of a civilized nation.
War profiteering is recognized as a crime against humanity but no soldier will be charged as a war profiteer for their salary and benefits for serving.
The most profit to be had by the elite class is to get the chattle goyim to fight and kill one another with weapons the elite sell to them while blaming them for the war the elite instigate and profit from.
Even during times of war, diplomatic efforts to communicate with the leadership of the declared enemy shall not cease. All efforts to bring an end of hostilities of war through peaceful means such as communications of the demands of both parties shall be utilized as fully as possible.
Chain of Command in the event of an attack from any foreign or domestic physical or verifiable threat of attack upon a number of individuals whether being employed by the collective or as private citizens can be simultaneously counter attacked and restrained under the authority of the First Secretary (Secretary at large). Any such action may be reviewed by and a complaint entered by any citizen on behalf of themselves or any human world wide to restrain or beg for the lives of those people feeling the use of advanced weaponry designed to kill people indiscriminately often taking the lives of innocent civilians.
Chain of command
I(We) believe that soldiers can operate under the leadership of the Constitution and be trained in the rules of and conditions of war without allegiance to a prime ruler, a chief. Yet I do not think the majority trained to believe in alphas and singularities are ready. Until decided otherwise the First Secretary will be the commander in chief of any and all military action, that authority can only be challenged by a referendum style no confidence process. The three million or 1% of the population signers to the process will be considered as signers of a complaint and the referendum vote is the final decision of trust or mistrust.
Continuous war is not necessary, it is instigated by war profiteers. In the United States government appropriations going to military equipment and war are about 50% of the expenditures. Who receives this money? Much of it goes to investors and managers of weapons manufacturer corporations.
1. ¼ the funds spent on a war effort must be spent on efforts of reconciliation, negotiation and bringing about peace and such efforts will not cease until the end of hostilities.
2. No management or investor no matter what amount or percentage of ownership shall receive more than 5 times the wages of the lowest paid worker of the manufacturing company or any sub contracting supplier company producing any and all mechanical, electrical and even non physical communication code purchased by the for an effort of war or national defense by any other name for violent restraint of any internal or international entity of human beings.
Although some of these individuals collectively and individually will use violence to maintain their plutocratic autocracy, this war they started is one which has to be fought in mind and spirit rather than a violent overthrow. If they were doing even a mediocre job of running the world we would remain loyal trusting that this class, that owns our governance, had our best interests in mind even marginally in mind.
End of Draft of the Constitution
I first began to write this Constitution of a fictional nation I eventually chose to name “The New West” on March 4, 2015. Now it is February 20th, 2020 and I am about to publish this first draft, there is much more to do. We, I to be more truthful at this time in the process, want this Constitution to be the foundation of a government that will be truly run by and owned by every citizen, even the citizens that are not capable of participating or choose not to participate. At first there will be many who choose not to participate because they are not used to having a means of meaningful participation. Humans are a diverse set of beings and it is important that some of their own accord choose not to participate so they can direct their concentration on things that are important to them. If we are to achieve some sort of energy generation that would be a miracle as compared to the present when we do have crude dangerous nuclear power and use fossil fuel in ways that were unthinkable a short 200 years ago, it won’t be done by somebody who dedicates a great deal of their time to the social interactions and organization of what we call government.
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Plan of Action Call to Action
What is the plan?
If we do not hold a national referendum concerning ratification of the Constitution we are just subjects. The first big goal is to propose the first national referendum and through an effort of signature gathering demonstrate a majority at a number in correspondence to the level of voters who took part in the last presidential election. So here is the total vote between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump: 62,984,828 Trump and 65,853,514 Clinton at 46.1% and 48.2% = 94.3% So 62,984,828 + 65,853,514 = 128838342 (100/94.3=1.06045) = 136626025. now we divide that buy 2 and we need 68313012 votes to carry the country. If it looks like we could get that a referendum concerning ratification should be on the ballot.
1. Once elected, the President and his Administrative appointees, the legislative and judicial branch of government have the same extent of supremacy concerning loose interpretation of the Constitution that now exists.
2. Reinstate the Constitution as it is only far more stringently and recognize this Constitution as the highest authority above all individual office holders, everyone is equal under the law.
3. Recognize the need for a much revised Constitution so much that the final edit will be considered a New Constitution so no citizen has to read the parts pertaining to slavery and not recognizing the rights of Native Peoples. Also of concern is the level of private control of the currency and the cost of the warring nature (M.O.) within the corporate structure of the current government. Things which affect us all, all working class citizens of racial diversity, in such a negative way.
I’m going to run for Representative in US Congress again in the November 3rd 2020 election. This goal is personal and some may say it would be hypocritical to run for office in the government you advocate replacing but that is what I plan to do. Running for office will get the message out and if by chance enough people agree it will help prove there is a mandate for major change in the way our government operates. I don’t want the job of being a United States District Representative, that job belongs to the people; if I have to be there to make this happen and start the sentient sapient revolution then I’m going to do it. My plan is to implement Direct Participatory Democracy so everyone who wants to participate can have a vote on the laws and appropriations we are to live under and within.
I think we should develop a list of war profiteers and corporate shysters and people who choose to do so can refuse to service them or even accept their money because it was not earned by fair honest work, instead their wealth and status was stolen from working class people and by monopolizing natural resources. Donald Rumsfeld, Dick Cheney and George W. Bush’s money is dirty, they lied us into wars they profited from. What is supposed to be our government will not arrest them seize their war profits and try them for war crimes. I believe people have the right and duty to refuse service to such people.
!!!! need to add a chapter about on line smart phone voting !!!!
Here are some additional thoughts about things I think our government and our people should try and make the reality of a brighter fairer future:
Every citizen of a Country is an economic soldier and soldiers receive healthcare regardless of their rank.
Life long learning and recognition for achievements and communication ability, the opportunity to attend classes part time to round out their knowledge and experience toward a degree.
Communicate with working class people of all nations to help end war.
Rebuild communities destroyed by the war profiteers who controlled the US.
Build super insulated housing and super insulate all government buildings to save energy.
Develop a United Peoples organization around the United Nations and maybe in the long run rise above it.
Separate human transportation from freight so cars can be lighter and use less fuel while being as safe or safer.
Eventually there will be no need for taxes because the government workers will be paid by the value of their work with money that relates to their contribution to the benefit of the collective and that along with the collective assets such as any gold in fort Knox, all the national parks and forests and everything publicly owned.
Do you support the idea that we need a revolution in the United States?
Here are a couple of things people can do that are simple acts of non criminal civil disobedience to show your support:
This is not easily accomplished with spell check and other text correction programming behind almost everything we write but, here goes. Since capital letters serve no real purpose and they share the same base word with economic capitalism you could show your support for the revolution of the ‘west’ by written communications using no capitals. there are already periods separating the end from the beginning of sentences and most names are easily recognizable as such, so using no capital letters can express a stand against the tyranny income inequality of economic capitalism.
another way to show support for the west is when you are talking about the united states, refer to is as the west. actually many people already use the west in this manner. yes capital letters do come in handy and maybe after the revolution actually gets going we can go back to using capitals but not using capital letters will certainly bring about comments and an opening to talk about why you believe it is time for a western democratic revolution.
As I said the Declaration of Interdependence and the Constitution of the West as part of this book are just drafts. We need to get as many people involved in this work as possible to make it the best it possibly can so we can actually get a majority of citizens to believe in the revolution.
Definition of economy (Entry 1 of 2)
1: the structure or conditions of economic life in a country, area, or period
also : an economic system
2a: thrifty and efficient use of material resources : frugality in expenditures
also : an instance or a means of economizing : SAVING
b: efficient and concise use of nonmaterial resources (such as effort, language, or motion)
3a: the arrangement or mode of operation of something : ORGANIZATION
b: a system especially of interaction and exchange
an economy of information
4archaic : the management of household or private affairs and especially expenses
1530s, “household management,” from Latin oeconomia (source of French économie, Spanish economia, German Ökonomie, etc.), from Greek oikonomia “household management, thrift,” from oikonomos “manager, steward,” from oikos “house, abode, dwelling” (cognate with Latin vicus “district,” vicinus “near;” Old English wic “dwelling, village,” from PIE root *weik- (1) “clan”) + nomos “managing,” from nemein “manage” (from PIE root *nem- “assign, allot; take”). Meaning “frugality, judicious use of resources” is from 1660s. The sense of “wealth and resources of a country” (short for political economy) is from 1650s. https://www.etymonline.com/word/economy
So to subscribe to the economic school of thought, you are asked to except that having unlimited wants is part of the economic equation as a human social economic psychological norm.
In our lesson today, we begin by define the subject of economics.
The English term ‘Economics’ is derived from the Greek word ‘Oikonomia’. Its meaning is ‘household management’. Economics was first read in ancient Greece. Aristotle, the Greek Philosopher termed Economics as a science of ‘household management’. But with the change of time and progress of civilization, the economic condition of man changes. As a result, an evolutionary change in the definition of Economics is noticed. Towards the end of the eighteenth century Adam Smith, the celebrated English Economist and the father of Economics, termed Economics as the ‘Science of Wealth’. According to him, “Economics is a science that enquires into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations”. In other words, how wealth is produced and how it is used, are the subject-matter of economics. In the subsequent period Alfred Marshall defined Economics by saying, ‘Economics is a study mankind in the ordinary business of life’. In other words, according to Marshall, Economics studies not only the wealth but also the activities centering the wealth. In modern times more realistic definitions have been given to economics. In social life human wants are unlimited, but the means to satisfy those wants are scarce. Economics studies how to use the limited resources to satisfy the unlimited wants of men. In the words of Lionel Robins, the modern economist, ‘Economics is a science which studies human behavior as relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternatives uses’. So, Economics as a social science studies how people perform economic activities and how they try to satisfy unlimited wants by the proper use of limited resources. Economics is the study of how societies use scarce resources to produce valuable commodities and distribute them among different people.
Management obviously gets a cut in the current scheme of things. I don’t accept unlimited wants as part of the equation, this is justification of a caste like system within capitalism. The quest for profit cannot be the only moral factor in the way the business of life is now carried on.
What I’m asking for is public monies become part of the equation. Every person determined to be of age has a right to vote on law and appropriation as a basic human right. When I conducted surveys with a small, 200 verified people/email accounts, at first or when I published a poll with that many members; I received about 10% response. This number is when people realize their vote is in an experimental vote that does not count rather than if their vote counted.
They can own all their private wealth with a few stipulations, Wall Street and the whole international business mechanisms. They will remain intact, the only difference is they will not own the governments of the world anymore beginning with the United States. They can be hired to do work commissioned by the government just as they do now, it just won’t be their money on both ends, the interest end and the goods and services end because they own the fiat money debt based currency and the own the means of production. Their management fees are not worth their archaic dysfunctional style and level of management.
The problem of advocating for a revolution comes with the reality that people of average and less than average income and education only think on terms of their needs and desires. I certain level of food, shelter, sex and entertainment will keep them content enough not to desire governmental changes that would improve their lives considerably by being able to keep a greater share of their production of goods and services. Another problem is sophistication of and level of propaganda disbursed by the ruling class. Although there is a benefit to public K-12 education and beyond being a greater level of proficiency and productivity of educated citizenry, indoctrination is part of the equation whether purposeful or otherwise.
Then too as touched upon in the “I smell a Rat…” chapter, loyalty versus independent creative thinking is a struggle that affects us right down to genetics.
What about racial concerns? Also finish the DPD voting chapter